File Name: experimental design and data anlysis vu .zip
The Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam abbreviated as VU or VU Amsterdam is a university in Amsterdam , Netherlands , founded in , and ranked among the world's top universities by four major ranking tables. The VU is one of two large, publicly funded research universities in the city, the other being the University of Amsterdam UvA. Both within and outside the university, the institution is commonly referred to as "the VU".
The Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam abbreviated as VU or VU Amsterdam is a university in Amsterdam , Netherlands , founded in , and ranked among the world's top universities by four major ranking tables.
The VU is one of two large, publicly funded research universities in the city, the other being the University of Amsterdam UvA. Both within and outside the university, the institution is commonly referred to as "the VU". Although founded as a private institution, the VU has received government funding on a parity basis with public universities since The university is located on a compact urban campus in the southern Buitenveldert neighbourhood of Amsterdam and adjacent to the modern Zuidas business district.
In , the VU had 23, registered students,  most of whom were full-time students. That year, the university had 2, faculty members and researchers, and 1, administrative, clerical and technical employees, based on FTE units.
About three quarters of this endowment is government funding; the remainder is made up of tuition fees, research grants, and private funding.
The official university seal is entitled The Virgin in the Garden. Personally chosen by Abraham Kuyper , the Reformed-Protestant leader and founder of the university, it depicts a virgin living in freedom in a garden while pointing towards God, referring to the Protestant Reformation in the Netherlands in the 16th and 17th century. In , the university adopted the mythical griffin as its common emblem.
Kuyper was a theologian, journalist, politician, and prime minister of the Netherlands from to He was a professor of theology at VU as well as the university's first rector magnificus academic president. Kuyper's worldview and philosophy is referred to as Neo-Calvinism. As a reflection of his beliefs, Vrije Universiteit literally means 'Free University' or 'Liberated University' to signify independence from both government and church.
Teaching at the Vrije Universiteit started in in a few rooms rented at the Scottish Missionary Church now the Kleine Komedie theatre , along the Amstel river in Amsterdam's city centre. Here, Kuyper and four fellow professors began lecturing in three faculties: theology, law, and the arts.
By the turn of the 20th century, the Scottish Missionary Church became too small for the growing number of students and the university bought its first building, located at Keizersgracht In the following years, the university acquired more buildings throughout the city.
In , VU was formally accredited and granted the legal right to award academic degrees. New faculties were subsequently added to the original three, including a science faculty and a medical faculty Funding for the university was provided through the VU Association, the Christian organization founded by Abraham Kuyper, which was firmly rooted within the reformed Protestant community in the Netherlands.
By the end of the s, the university received financial support from more than , private contributors. Many were making small coin donations collected by some 10, mostly female fundraisers, who were going door to door with the quintessential green VU collecting box. It was in this period of time, the end of the s and into the s, that the university's profile changed significantly in many respects.
In order to strengthen academic research, university administrators decided to apply for public funding on parity with public universities, which is guaranteed under the Dutch constitution, and no longer opposed admitting non-Protestant professors and students. As a result, the number of students grew substantially. Against the background of increasing student activism at universities around the world, new student organizations were formed demanding a more democratic academic culture at VU.
By the end of the s, the small, elitist Christian institution had all but disappeared and had become a broad, research-oriented university, open to students of diverse backgrounds. Student numbers continued to grow rapidly in the 21st century: from 15, students in to about 25, in , causing growing pains which have resulted in lower student satisfaction and budgetary constraints. The university has embarked on a reform agenda, including a large-scale renewal of campus facilities, austerity programmes and staff reorganizations,  which in turn were met with opposition and legal action from trade unions as well as a newly formed grassroots movement of staff and students.
The university's main campus and medical centre are situated in the Buitenveldert neighbourhood, part of the southern district of Amsterdam. The campus occupies about 0. Initially a fairly isolated location surrounded mostly by fields, the campus is now adjacent to the modern Zuidas business district housing some of the largest banks, accounting and law firms in the Netherlands. The VU campus is served by the 51 metro line as well as a number of tram lines and bus routes.
It is also within walking distance of the Amsterdam Zuid railway station. The sixteen-story building is currently undergoing major renovation works.
The University Library occupies five floors as well as several floors with closed stacks. In addition, the Main Building houses the Aula main auditorium , the university restaurant, several kiosks, a fair trade store, and the VU bookstore. On the south side, the Main Building provides access to the campus square 'Campusplein'.
Many student organizations have their offices along the campus square entrance. In the middle of campus square is The Basket, the university bar, as well as a number of volleyball fields. Recent additions to the campus square area include a campus supermarket and an Italian coffeehouse.
Also adjacent to the campus square is the modern building of the Institute for Health and Welness, which has been nicknamed the Red Potato after its distinct shape and color. The arch-shaped building, opened in , now forms the eastern entrance of the VU campus. The Faculty of Social Sciences is located in the Metropolitan Building, technically just off-campus, on the other side of the Buitenveldertselaan. The medical faculty is located on west end of campus, adjacent to the sprawling VU University Medical Center.
Besides the medical center lays the new research building named O2. The satellite campus 'Uilenstede' is located further south, in the municipality of Amstelveen. Several of the university's administrative departments are also located at the Uilenstede campus. Uilenstede is served by metro 51 and tram 5. Many of the residential halls at Uilenstede are currently undergoing major renovation works. A new apartment complex for visiting staff and international Ph. The Vrije Universiteit is made up of several faculties, responsible for teaching and research, as well as a number of interdisciplinary research institutes.
The other main institution within this foundation is the VU University Medical Center , which has a separate management structure. The Executive Board has general management responsibilities and appoints the deans and professors of the faculties. The Executive Board is accountable to a Supervisory Board, appointed by the members' assembly of the VU Association, a private organization which founded the university in The university's Works Council , a body of elected representatives of faculty and staff, as well as the Student Council, have consultation and co-decision rights in some areas of university policy and management.
The College of Deans, consisting of all faculty deans and chaired by the Rector, acts as a coordinating and consulting body at the central level and is responsible for awarding doctoral degrees and honorary doctorates. Teaching is organized within the several faculties. Together, the faculties offer 50 bachelor's , almost master's , and a number of Ph. The language of instruction for most bachelor's courses is Dutch. About 80 master's programmes at VU are offered entirely in English.
The university also maintains a number of bilateral exchange agreements with foreign universities, allowing foreign students to spend one or two semesters at the Vrije Universiteit. As with all publicly funded universities in the Netherlands, bachelor's and master's students pay tuition fees determined by law. Rather than applying to the university for admission, prospective students must find a full professor who has a position for a Ph.
Most faculties advertise open positions on their websites. As is common in Dutch universities, 'promovendi' are paid a salary and are considered university employees, therefore they do not pay tuition.
The Shanghai Ranking placed the Vrije Universiteit overall in the range, with higher rankings in the subject areas Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy 48th , Life and Agricultural Science range , Social Science range , and Economics and Business range. Like teaching, research at VU is organized mostly along the lines of the ten faculties and their departments.
University-wide, four interdisciplinary themes have been determined as the principal focus areas of research:. In addition to faculty research centres and programmes, the University houses several interdisciplinary research institutes.
AIMMS focusses on three programs: molecular mechanisms of biological processes , design and characterization of molecules and medicines , and Biomarkers and diagnostics. In , about Ph. In , the European Research Council awarded two starting grants and six advanced grants to VU researchers. In , Professor Piek Vossen Computational Lexicology was one of three scholars awarded with the Spinoza Prize , the highest scientific award in the Netherlands.
The University Library holds a relatively large collection of more than 1,, printed items. The library's special collections department holds 70, manuscripts and printed items in 26 collections. Important collections include reformation works, original English prints, pamphlets and portraits.
The university's independent newspaper, Ad Valvas , has been in print since The newspaper formally acquired editorial independence in Ad Valvas appeared on a weekly basis until fall , when it became as a biweekly magazine. The Ad Valvas magazine focuses primarily on background stories, interviews and op-ed articles, while daily campus news is mostly provided through the newspaper's website.
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Johan L. Perols, Robert M. The Accounting Review 1 March ; 92 2 : — Developing models to detect financial statement fraud involves challenges related to 1 the rarity of fraud observations, 2 the relative abundance of explanatory variables identified in the prior literature, and 3 the broad underlying definition of fraud. Following the emerging data analytics literature, we introduce and systematically evaluate three data analytics preprocessing methods to address these challenges.
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Deutschland Deutsch English. Proper experimental design is the key to any gene expression study. Since mRNA transcription can be sensitive to external stimuli that are unrelated to the processes studied, it is important to work under tightly controlled and well-defined conditions. Taking the time to define experimental procedures, control groups, type and number of replicates, experimental conditions, and sample handling methods within each group is essential to minimize variability. Each of these parameters should be carefully recorded prior to conducting real-time PCR experiments to ensure good biological reproducibility for published data. Related Topics : Gene Expression Analysis.
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Importance: Refugees and internally displaced persons are highly vulnerable to sexual violence during conflict and subsequent displacement. However, accurate estimates of the prevalence of sexual violence among in these populations remain uncertain. Objective: Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of sexual violence among refugees and displaced persons in complex humanitarian emergencies.
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