File Name: traditional agriculture pets and diseases control methods .zip
In augmentative biological control ABC , invertebrate and microbial organisms are seasonally released in large numbers to reduce pests. Today it is applied on more than 30 million ha worldwide. Europe is the largest commercial market for invertebrate biological control agents, while North America has the largest sales of microbials.
This lists the logos of programs or partners of NG Education which have provided or contributed the content on this page. Leveled by. Agriculture is the art and science of cultivating the soil, growing crops and raising livestock. It includes the preparation of plant and animal products for people to use and their distribution to markets. Cotton, wool, and leather are all agricultural products.
Organic farming relies on methods which combine scientific knowledge of ecology and modern technology with traditional farming practices based on naturally occurring biological processes. It is a farming system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. The principal methods of organic farming include crop rotation, green manure and compost, mechanical cultivation and biological pest control. Farmers are faced with myriad of production challenges where the most common problems are pests, which include insects, diseases, and weeds. They integrate cultural, biological, mechanical, physical and chemical practices to manage pests. To design and implement best practices of pest management in organic farming, it is also necessary to have accurate knowledge of crop and pest biology, ecology, phenology and of pest-crop interactions, while following strictly regulated rules of organic farming. In many counties around the world, it's regulated by an inspection, certification and labeling scheme.
Due to the regulations of organic farming, few options remain for organic farmers to manage pests and diseases in their crops compared to conventional farming. However, major pests could still be managed through manipulation of the agroecosystem processes in advantage of the crops and disadvantage of pests. The limited number of active plant protection substances authorized for use in organic farming can provide support to natural and biological control agents in suppression of pests and diseases. This chapter highlights the principles and strategies of crop protection in organic farming, the cultural practices adopted, the active substances allowed for use to suppress pests, and the impacts on faunal and floral biodiversity. A case study of organic date palm cultivation is discussed. Multifunctionality and Impacts of Organic and Conventional Agriculture. Organic agriculture is a holistic production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems, and people.
Organic farming is an agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices. Certified organic agriculture accounts for 70 million hectares globally, with over half of that total in Australia. It is defined by the use of fertilizers of organic origin such as compost manure , green manure , and bone meal and places emphasis on techniques such as crop rotation and companion planting. Biological pest control , mixed cropping and the fostering of insect predators are encouraged. Organic standards are designed to allow the use of naturally occurring substances while prohibiting or strictly limiting synthetic substances.
Many farms have both livestock and cropping operations or are located in close proximity to plant crops. It is mainly grown for its fruits, either fresh or in processed forms. It requires more physical input towards production in addition to critical thinking when approaching pest management and soil fertility. Anaerobic digestion is particularly suited to organic material, and is commonly used for industrial effluent, wastewater and sewage sludge treatment.
Intensive agriculture , also known as intensive farming as opposed to extensive farming and industrial agriculture , is a type of agriculture , both of crop plants and of animals , with higher levels of input and output per unit of agricultural land area. It is characterized by a low fallow ratio, higher use of inputs such as capital and labour , and higher crop yields per unit land area. Most commercial agriculture is intensive in one or more ways. Forms that rely heavily on industrial methods are often called industrial agriculture, which is characterised by innovations designed to increase yield.
Никаких шансов. Боль в боку усилилась. Сверху слышался гулкий звук шагов, спешащих вниз по лестнице. Беккер закрыл глаза, стиснул зубы и подтянулся. Камень рвал кожу на запястьях.
Поэтому такая перспектива даже не обсуждалась. Сьюзан старалась сохранять самообладание. Мысли ее по-прежнему возвращались к сотруднику лаборатории систем безопасности, распластавшемуся на генераторах. Она снова прошлась по кнопкам. Они не реагировали.
- Я залечу твои раны. Она безуспешно пыталась высвободиться. - Я сделал это ради нас обоих.
Любопытным шпикам не придет в голову сесть на хвост преподавателю испанского языка. - Он профессор, - поправила его Сьюзан и тут же пожалела об. У нее часто возникало чувство, что Стратмор не слишком высокого мнения о Дэвиде и считает, что она могла бы найти себе кого-то поинтереснее, чем простой преподаватель.
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