File Name: gnss global navigation satellite systems gps glonass galileo and more .zip
The book refers to GNSS in the generic sense to describe the various existing reference systems for coordinates and time, the satellite orbits, the satellite signals, observables, mathematical models for positioning, data processing, and data transformation.
This Handbook presents a complete and rigorous overview of the fundamentals, methods and applications of the multidisciplinary field of Global Navigation Satellite Systems GNSS , providing an exhaustive, one-stop reference work and a state-of-the-art description of GNSS as a key technology for science and society at large.
The functional principles of receivers and antennas, as well as the advanced algorithms and models for GNSS parameter estimation, are rigorously discussed. The book covers the broad and diverse range of land, marine, air and space applications, from everyday GNSS to high-precision scientific applications and provides detailed descriptions of the most widely used GNSS format standards, covering receiver formats as well as IGS product and meta-data formats.
The full coverage of the field of GNSS is presented in seven parts, from its fundamentals, through the treatment of global and regional navigation satellite systems, of receivers and antennas, and of algorithms and models, up to the broad and diverse range of applications in the areas of positioning and navigation, surveying, geodesy and geodynamics, and remote sensing and timing. Each chapter is written by international experts and amply illustrated with figures and photographs, making the book an invaluable resource for scientists, engineers, students and institutions alike.
It assumes no prior knowledge of the systems or how they work. All of the key concepts of satellite-based positioning, navigation, and timing PNTpositioning, navigation and timing PNT are introduced with pointers to subsequent chapters for further details. The chapter begins with a history of PNT using satellites and then introduces the concept of positioning using measured ranges between a receiver and satellites.
The basic observation equations are then described along with the associated error budgets. Subsequently, the various GNSSs now in operation and in development are briefly overviewed. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the relevance and importance of GNSS for science and society at large. The topic is primarily one of geometry, but the geodynamics of the Earth as a rotating body in the solar system plays a fundamental role in defining and transforming coordinate systems.
Therefore, also the fourth coordinate, time, is critical not only as the independent variable in the dynamical theories, but also as a parameter in modern geodetic measurement systems. Instead of expounding the theory of geodynamics and celestial mechanics, it is sufficient for the purpose of this chapter to describe the corresponding phenomena, textually, analytically and illustratively, in order to give a sense of the scope of the tasks involved in providing accurate coordinate reference systems not just to geodesists, but to all geoscientists.
This chapter discusses fundamentals of orbital dynamics and provides a description of key perturbations affecting global navigation satellite system GNSSglobal navigation satellite system GNSS satellites along with their impact on the orbits.
Models for perturbing accelerations including Earth gravity, third body perturbations, surface forces, and relativistic corrections are described with emphasis on empirical and semiempirical solar radiation pressure models.
Long-term evolution of GNSS orbits and orbit keeping maneuvers are discussed. The concepts of broadcast orbit models such as almanac models, analytical ephemeris models and numerical ephemeris models used by current GNSS systems are presented along with cook book algorithms and a summary of their performance. Complementary to the discussion of GNSS satellite orbits, the chapter introduces the basic concepts of GNSS satellite attitude, which are, for example, required to describe the antenna location relative to the center-of-mass.
Satellite navigation relies on signals radiated by orbiting satellites and received by mobile satellite navigation receivers. This chapter addresses the fundamentals of such navigation signals and introduces the most important underlying concepts.
It provides an introduction to radio frequency signals including the basics of electromagnetic waves, their carrier frequency, polarization, as well as group and phase velocity. The application of waves for carrying signals, their power and spectrum are addressed. It is shown how information-carrying signals can be modulated onto the wave using various modulation schemes such as binary phase shift keying, binary offset carrier, and alternating binary offset carrier.
The concept of pseudo-random codes which is typically used for GNSS signals is introduced as well as their receiver side processing following a correlation principle. This chapter provides an overview of clock technology and typical clocks Cs, Rb, H-Maser in use today for onboard and ground systems and identifies future trends such as fountain clocks, etc.
The handling and impact of special and general relativity on timing measurements are discussed. Finally, the generation of a GNSS time from an ensemble of ground clocks is described. Thereby, electromagnetic waves travel through the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere troposphere which causes signals to be delayed, damped, and refracted as the refractivity index of the propagation media is not equal to one. In this chapter, the nature and effects of GNSS signal propagation in both the troposphere and the ionosphere, aref examined.
After a brief review of the fundamentals of electromagnetic waves their propagation in refractive media, the effects of the neutral atmosphere are discussed. In addition, empirical correction models as well as the state-of-the-art atmosphere delay estimation approaches are presented. Effects related to signal propagation through the ionosphere are dealt in a dedicated section by describing the error contribution of the first up to third-order terms in the refractive index and ray path bending.
After discussing diffraction and scattering phenomena due to ionospheric irregularities, mitigation techniques for different types of applications are presented. First, the space segment is described, including key characteristics of the different satellite types. Then, an overview of the control segment is given, including its operations and evolution of capabilities. This is followed by an overview of the GPS signals, current and future, as well as a description of the navigation data content.
Then, the time and coordinate systems used by GPS are described. The chapter is concluded with a brief description of services and performance. Initiated in the s, the system first achieved its full operational capability in Following a temporary degradation, the nominal constellation of 24 satellites was ultimately reestablished in and the system has been in continued service since then.
In addition, the planned evolution of the space and ground segment are outlined. The European global navigation satellite system Galileo is designed as a self-standing satellite-based positioning system for worldwide service.
It is independent from other systems with respect to satellite constellation, ground segment, and operation. Galileo is prepared to be compatible and interoperable with other radio navigation satellite systems, with global positioning system GPSGlobal Positioning System GPS Galileo as the main example.
The features of the first generation of Galileo comprise technological advances such as passive maser clock technology in orbit, plus modern system and signal concepts aligned to the planned and ongoing modernization of other systems. To the user, Galileo provides navigation signals on three frequencies E1, E6, and E5. This is expected to result in a benefit with respect to positioning accuracy, and in increased robustness of a positioning service derived from the combined use of multiple independent radio navigation systems.
This chapter describes architecture and operations of Galileo. First, the development strategy and basic principle of BeiDou Demonstration System are reviewed. Its basic performance is given in details. Second, the basic information of BeiDou regional system including constellation, frequency, coordinate reference system, and time datum is described.
Its initial performance is evaluated by using single-point positioning, code and carrier phase differential positioning. Some application examples are introduced. At last, Chinese Area Positioning System is briefly introduced. Two regional systems implemented in Asia will be introduced in this chapter. In this chapter, the concept of regional navigation satellite systems is first described. The combination of satellites in GEO and IGSO is a common idea to realize such a regional service platform with a low number of satellites.
Secondly, the detailed characteristics of both systems are described in the following sections. The system architecture, service provision including navigation signal properties and service performance to be provided, as well as the deployment plan or schedule are mentioned for each system.
Additionally, initial demonstration results are presented. SBASs improve the positioning accuracy by providing corrections for the largest error sources. More importantly, SBASs provide assured confidence bounds on these corrections that allows users to place integrity limits on their position errors.
Several systems have been implemented around the world and several more are in development. They have been put into place by civil aviation authorities for the express purpose of enhancing air navigation services.
However, SBAS services have been widely adopted by other user communities, as the signals are free of charge and easily integrated into GNSS receivers. This chapter describes the basic architecture, functions, and application of SBAS. Because the key motivation behind SBAS is integrity, it is essential first to understand the error sources that affect GNSS and how they may vary with time or location. It is then explained how the corrections and confidence intervals are determined and applied by the user.
The different SBASs that have been developed around the world are described and how they are developed to the same international standards such that each is interoperable with the others. The performances and services of each system are described. Finally, the evolution of SBAS from its current single-frequency single-constellation form into systems that support multiple-frequencies and multiple-constellations is described. The goal of this chapter is to explain the motivation for developing SBASs and provide the reader with a working knowledge of how they function and how they may be used to enhance GNSS positioning accuracy and integrity.
It starts with a breakdown of the receiver function into individual building blocks along the processing chain front-end, down conversion, mixers, numerically controlled oscillators, correlators, tracking loops, data demodulation, navigation, user interface , and describes the respective functions.
A dedicated section describes selected hardware solutions example chipsets for front-end and baseband processing, offering different levels of integration and capabilities.
Finally, receiver designs performing the signal processing in pure software as well as receivers based on configurable hardware are discussed. It provides a high-level block diagram as well as detailed descriptions for all the internal functions of a modern digital GNSS receiver, focusing on signal acquisition and tracking, time synchronization, navigation data bit demodulation and decoding, and measurement generation.
Furthermore, advanced topics in designing modern digital GNSS receivers such as tracking of the global positioning system GPSGlobal Positioning System GPS P Y -code, various combined processing schemes, Kalman filter-based signal tracking loops, and a vector-tracking approach are also presented. Multipathmultipath is the phenomenon whereby the signal from a satellite arrives at the receiver via multiple paths due to reflection and diffraction. These nondirect-path signals distort the received signal and cause errors in code and phase measurements.
Differential techniques do not eliminate multipath and thus multipath is an important error source in high precision applications. This chapter describes the multipath environment and presents models describing the impact of multipath on code and phase measurements. The influence of the type and rate of the broadcast code as well as the receiver architecture will be highlighted.
Mitigation techniques based on receiver design will also be described along with the impact of receiver dynamics. Finally, a technique to measure multipath is described and its usage in evaluating static environments is discussed.
The goal of this chapter is to provide the reader with the tools to assess the impact of multipath on both the code and phase and to understand the performance improvements and limitations associated with various multipath mitigation techniques. Moreover, the most popular GNSS signals — those offered with unrestricted access — are unencrypted and unauthenticated, which means they can be counterfeited, or spoofed.
Strict international laws protect the radio frequency bands allocated to GNSS, but mother nature does not respect these laws, and man-made interference — whether accidental or intentional — is a growing concern. It offers a systematic treatment of natural, unintentional, and intentional interference, with emphasis on intentional jamming and spoofing. Theoretical performance bounds are developed for the simplest cases of narrowband and wideband interferences.
The chapter finishes with a review of the state of the art in antenna-oriented and signal-processing-oriented interference detection and mitigation techniques. Transmit antennas onboard the GNSS satellites, on the other hand, are quite different and employ large antenna arrays to create high-gain global beams illuminating the entire surface of the Earth. This chapter presents different design options for GNSS antennas operating in the L-band of the radio frequency spectrum.
It starts with a brief discussion of key requirements for the GNSS receiving antenna, where several design parameters are introduced and explained. Thereafter, antennas of different design technologies suitable to GNSS are explored and discussed in detail.
Following the introduction of major antenna candidates, different variants for specialized requirements, such as the small form factor or multipath mitigation are presented. Finally, a comprehensive discussion on antenna measurements and the performance evaluation is provided.
This chapter presents a review of a range of global navigation satellite system GNSSglobal navigation satellite system GNSS simulators and test equipment. Different types of systems are discussed, including radio frequency RFradio frequency RF and intermediate frequency IFintermediate frequency IF simulators; record and playback systems; and measurement simulators.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. The book refers to GNSS in the generic sense to describe the various existing reference systems for coordinates and time, the satellite orbits, the satellite signals, observables, mathematical models for positioning, data processing, and data transformation. With respect to the individual systems GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and more, primarily the specific reference systems, services, the space and the control segment, as well as satellite signals are described.
It provides an alternative to GPS and is the second navigational system in operation with global coverage and of comparable precision. Manufacturers of satellite navigation devices say that adding GLONASS made more satellites available to them, meaning positions can be fixed more quickly and accurately, especially in built-up areas where buildings may obscure the view to some GPS satellites. Beginning on 12 October , numerous rocket launches added satellites to the system, until the completion of the constellation in After a decline in capacity during the late s, in , the restoration of the system was made a government priority and funding increased substantially. By , GLONASS had achieved full coverage of Russia's territory and in October the full orbital constellation of 24 satellites was restored, enabling full global coverage. The task also includes the delivery to the Moon of a series of spacecraft for orbital research and the establishment of a lunar communications and positioning system. GLONASS is a global navigation satellite system, providing real time position and velocity determination for military and civilian users.
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Satellite Systems (GNSS) such as Global Positioning System (GPS), cellular systems (GPS, GLONASS and Galileo), signal structure, receiver design, System (INS), has created numerous applications that needs more time to be honeycreekpres.org.pdf.
This Handbook presents a complete and rigorous overview of the fundamentals, methods and applications of the multidisciplinary field of Global Navigation Satellite Systems GNSS , providing an exhaustive, one-stop reference work and a state-of-the-art description of GNSS as a key technology for science and society at large. The functional principles of receivers and antennas, as well as the advanced algorithms and models for GNSS parameter estimation, are rigorously discussed. The book covers the broad and diverse range of land, marine, air and space applications, from everyday GNSS to high-precision scientific applications and provides detailed descriptions of the most widely used GNSS format standards, covering receiver formats as well as IGS product and meta-data formats. The full coverage of the field of GNSS is presented in seven parts, from its fundamentals, through the treatment of global and regional navigation satellite systems, of receivers and antennas, and of algorithms and models, up to the broad and diverse range of applications in the areas of positioning and navigation, surveying, geodesy and geodynamics, and remote sensing and timing. Each chapter is written by international experts and amply illustrated with figures and photographs, making the book an invaluable resource for scientists, engineers, students and institutions alike. It assumes no prior knowledge of the systems or how they work. All of the key concepts of satellite-based positioning, navigation, and timing PNTpositioning, navigation and timing PNT are introduced with pointers to subsequent chapters for further details.
Global navigation satellite system GNSS is a general term describing any satellite constellation that provides positioning, navigation, and timing PNT services on a global or regional basis. The main ones are described below. GNSS can also refer to augmentation systems, but there are too many international augmentations to list here. Some links below lead to external websites that the U. The links are provided for informational purposes and do not constitute a U. China is currently expanding the system to provide global coverage with 35 satellites by
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Тут что-то не так, - наконец сказала .
Тот вскрикнул и испуганно посмотрел на Беккера. Как кот, пойманный с канарейкой в зубах, святой отец вытер губы и безуспешно попытался прикрыть разбившуюся бутылку вина для святого причастия. - Salida! - крикнул Беккер.
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