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How to cite this article: Ragho KS. Role of pollen morphology in taxonomy and detection of adulterations in crud drugs. J Plant Sci Phytopathol. DOI: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
FullText PDF. Ghogrey Science College, Maharashtra, India. Present paper communicates 42 species of angiosperms depicting characteristics of pollen grains as shape, color, exine ornamentations, and type of apertures. Pollen morphological characters are very important in plant identifications in field. Pollen surface features plays significant role in taxonomy and detection of crud drugs. Firsthand information is gathered from field and provided in this research article.
The use of herbal medicine for the treatment of diseases and infections is a safe and traditional therapy. Pollen morphological characters are used to identify adulterations in crud drugs or dry herbs of some medicinal plants as pollen grains are very minute and are adhered in any part of the crud drugs.
In developing countries, medicinal plants are attaining greater importance in the primary health care of individuals and communities. Medicinal plants form a large group of economically important plants that provide the basic raw materials for indigenous pharmaceuticals. Pollen characters are useful in solving complicated problems of interrelationships between various taxa and assessment of their status in the classification, particularly with reference to the families, subfamilies, tribes, genera, species, and subspecies.
Pollen morphology is conducted as an aid to the morphological study and a significant tool for modern taxonomist for the delimitation of species. Mature pollen grain size, exine sculpturing, and number of pores are the most distinctive features. Palynological data has been useful at generic and specific level.
This analysis also helps in qualitative analysis of drug powder and the correct identification of drug. It plays an important role in our daily life as well. Aerobiology has received much attention due to its wide application in allergology, forestry, agriculture, horticulture, archaeology, and plant geography. But generally, these characters are overlooked by taxonomist due to lack of sufficient data. The first manual, Pollen Morphology and plant Taxonomy, appeared in which deals with angiosperm .
This book provided a summary of pollen morphological characteristics of all angiosperm families. As result of the work of these early authors there has recently been a great increase in the comparative analytical studies of pollen morphology and wall structure.
Results of considerable systematic and phylogenetics value have been obtained and the conclusions drawn from such studies are generally in agreement with those drawn from other fields of study. Uniaperturate pollen grain have a single germinal furrow or pore situated at the proximal or distal position.
The proximal form of apertures is always found in pteridophyta but in pteridosperms, the position is reported to be either proximal or distal Potonie, The proximal aperture is sometimes found in primitive angiosperms Nair, , but the distal position is predominant in flowering plants.
Triaperturate pollen grains have three germinal furrows, either radiating like the lines of a trilete mark from a common point or forming a triangle at the distal position. In other cases, the types of pollen may vary considerably in size, aperture, stratification of exine, etc. Such taxa are termed euirypalynous or multipalynous. Stenopalynous taxa are generally considered to be very natural. Asclepiadaceae, Cruciferae, Gramineae, Labiatae, etc.
Eurypalynous taxa, on the other hand, are taken to be heterogeneous, at least in certain instances. Palynological data are particularly useful in the delimitation of eurypalynous taxa. Families such as Rubiaceae, Acanthaceae, and Verbenaceae are highly eurypalynous and a revised classification of some of these has been proposed by some taxonomists Bremekamp, , The pollens were prepared for light microscopy by standard method.
Pollen materials were separated from their anthers with the help of forceps and needle under a dissecting microscope. The pollen grains ready for microscopic observations by acetolysis method and were placed on slide. The measurements were based on readings for every specimen. Pollen characteristics of pollen grains as shape, color, exine ornamentations, type of apertures. Regular field tours were arranged to collect the plants in flowering condition for preparing pollen grain slides.
Collected plants from the fields were identified with the help of floras . Pollen grains were identified with the help of some published literature [1,2,]. In the present work 42 angiosperm plants species are arranged systematically with their botanical names followed by family and characteristic of pollen grains viz. The microscopic observations under light microscope revealed that pollen grains of plants are psilate, rugate to spinulose, verrucate, reticulate, bacculate bottle shape , spiny, psilate with smooth surfaces.
The evaluation of crude drug which eventually enters the commercial market is obviously of considerable importance. The pharmacognostic studies consist of the collection of various parts of these plants, their identification, standardization, and authentication through various taxonomic markers and macro- and microscopic characters.
Companies involved in the crude drug sale generally avoid special recommendations on the use of a product. There are no applicable standards of quality for crude drugs, and they are not usually standardized with respect to the concentration of active components.
So, it is necessary to target such crude drugs to various standards of quality, purity, and safety, if acceptable consumer usage is to be achieved. To authenticate crud drugs it is very necessary to go through microscopic scientific studies e. This palynological work is also very important for evolutionary studies and to detect adulterations in crude drugs of plant origin. Guidelines Published.
Review Article Navigation. More Information. Abstract Navigation. Introduction Navigation. Medicinal plants form a large group of economically important plants that provide the basic raw materials for indigenous pharmaceuticals Pollen characters are useful in solving complicated problems of interrelationships between various taxa and assessment of their status in the classification, particularly with reference to the families, subfamilies, tribes, genera, species, and subspecies.
Methodology Navigation. Table 1: Systematic Enumeration of the plants studied. Combretaceae Elliptical Light brown Psilate Colpate 2. Pedilanthus tithymaloides L. Euphorbiaceae Rounded Brown yellow Psilate smooth Porate 3. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis L.
Spathodea campanulata Beauv. Crossandra undulifolia Salib. Ixora parviflora Vahl. Rubiaceae Rounded, circular Light yellow Psilate smooth Colporate 7. Hyptis suaveolens L.
Lamiaceae Rounded, circular in outline Brownish yellow Psilate Porate 8. Moringa concanensis Nimmo ex Dalz. Moringaceae Elliptic, oval Faint cream Psilate Colpate monocolpate 9. Cleome viscosa L. Cleomaceae Elliptic Light yellow Psilate Colpate bicolpate Rhynchosia minima L. Papilionaceae Slightly triangular in shape, circular Brown, greenish Psilate Porate Trizonoporate Lantana camara L. Verbenaceae Rounded Yellow Psilate Porate Azadiracta indica A. Meliaceae Rounded,elliptical Hyaline Psilate Colpate bicolpate Thevetia peruviana Pers.
Euphorbia indica Lam. Euphorbiaceae Elliptic Light yellow Psilate Colpate Pyrostegia venusta Miers. Bignoniaceae Elliptic, oval Light yellow Psilate Colpate bicolpate Euphorbia millii Des. Ephorbiaceae Elliptic, circular, oval Light brown Psilate thick eticulate Colpate bicolpate Tecoma stans L. Justicia gendarussa Burm. Acanthaceae Elliptic, oval,circular in outline Light yellow Psilate Porate, colpate triporate Ipomoea obscura L.
Sonchus oleraceus L. Clitoria ternatea L. Papilionaceae Quadrangular,triangular Light gray Psilate Porate broad colpi Datura innoxia Mill. Jatropha pandurifolia Andr.
How to cite this article: Ragho KS. Role of pollen morphology in taxonomy and detection of adulterations in crud drugs. J Plant Sci Phytopathol. DOI: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. FullText PDF.
Pollen morphology of subfamily Maloideae Roseaceae with special focus on the genus Photinia. Pollen morphology of 27 species of Photinia sensu stricto and five closely related genera of subfamily Maloideae Rosaceae were studied in detail. Palynomorphological characteristics were examined using scanning electron microscopy SEM. The exine ornamentation was perforated-striate, and two different types were identified. The result of quantitative characters has paltry taxonomic importance.
The intensive study of pollen morphology has added a new dimension to angiosperm taxonomy, of particular value at the generic level. Dr. Erdtman is one of the.
Она в столовой. Консьерж снова покачал головой: - Ресторан закрылся полчаса. Полагаю, Росио и ее гость ушли на вечернюю прогулку. Если вы оставите для нее записку, она получит ее прямо с утра. - Он направился к полке с ячейками для ключей и почты. - Быть может, я мог бы позвонить в номер и… - Простите, - сказал консьерж, и вся его любезность мгновенно улетучилась.
Стратмор, несомненно, постарается проверить все лично и найти пароль из шестидесяти четырех знаков. Затем он его уничтожит, и Цифровая крепость навсегда исчезнет из Интернета. - Действуй своим маячком очень осторожно, - сказал Стратмор. - Если Северная Дакота заподозрит, что мы его ищем, он начнет паниковать и исчезнет вместе с паролем, так что никакая штурмовая группа до него не доберется. - Все произойдет, как булавочный укол, - заверила его Сьюзан. - В тот момент, когда обнаружится его счет, маяк самоуничтожится. Танкадо даже не узнает, что мы побывали у него в гостях.
Позади закрылась дверь лифта, и она осталась одна в пугающей темноте.
Вот почему мы внесены в телефонный справочник. Мы занимаемся легальным бизнесом. А вы ищете проститутку. - Слово прозвучало как удар хлыста.
Он так или иначе собирался вернуть деньги.
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