File Name: global warming and health .zip
Part of the Respiratory Medicine book series RM, volume 7. Pulmonary physicians and scientists currently have minimal capacity to respond to climate change and its impacts on health. The extent to which climate change influences the prevalence and incidence of respiratory morbidity remains largely undefined. However, evidence is increasing that climate change does drive respiratory disease onset and exacerbation as a result of increased ambient and indoor air pollution, desertification, heat stress, wildfires, and the geographic and temporal spread of pollens, molds and infectious agents.
World Health Organization ,  . Climate change is increasingly affecting human health. Global warming has both direct and indirect health effects. Direct effects include exposure to extreme weather events such as heat waves. Indirect effects include disruption to economic and social activity, which can impact health if for example it reduces people's ability to earn a livelihood. Other health related effects arise from environmental degradation , diseases carried by vectors, food and waterborne infections, changes to food security , and impacts on mental health. In some cases there can be health benefits, but in the clear majority of observed and predicted cases, the health impacts of climate change are negative.
In , the U. The report finds that:. The impacts of climate change include warming temperatures, changes in precipitation, increases in the frequency or intensity of some extreme weather events, and rising sea levels. These impacts threaten our health by affecting the food we eat, the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the weather we experience. The severity of these health risks will depend on the ability of public health and safety systems to address or prepare for these changing threats, as well as factors such as an individual's behavior, age, gender, and economic status. Impacts will vary based on a where a person lives, how sensitive they are to health threats, how much they are exposed to climate change impacts, and how well they and their community are able to adapt to change. People in developing countries may be the most vulnerable to health risks globally, but climate change poses significant threats to health even in wealthy nations such as the United States.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Research has also evaluated actions that could be taken—and in some cases are already being taken—to limit the magnitude of future climate change and adapt to its impacts. In the United States, a series of reports by the U.
Metrics details. This article provides an overview of the current and projected climate change risks and impacts to mental health and provides recommendations for priority actions to address the mental health consequences of climate change. The authors argue the following three points: firstly, while attribution of mental health outcomes to specific climate change risks remains challenging, there are a number of opportunities available to advance the field of mental health and climate change with more empirical research in this domain; secondly, the risks and impacts of climate change on mental health are already rapidly accelerating, resulting in a number of direct, indirect, and overarching effects that disproportionally affect those who are most marginalized; and, thirdly, interventions to address climate change and mental health need to be coordinated and rooted in active hope in order to tackle the problem in a holistic manner.
The evidence that human activity and expansion is the main cause of climate change is stronger than ever. All of these changes are a serious threat to health. According to the Environmental Protection Agency EPA , warmer temperatures could increase the concentrations of unhealthy air and water pollutants. Along with these, the environmental consequences of climate change, which are already occurring, include heat waves, changes in precipitation flooding and drought , more intense storms, and worsening air quality. The direct damage cost to health caused by climate change not including factors that affect health such as agriculture, water, and sanitation is estimated to be between 2 to 4 billion dollars per year by
Global climate change is now widely recognised as one of the foremost — perhaps the foremost — environmental challenge of the 21 st century. The evidence for human influence on climate change through emissions of greenhouse gases mainly carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning, and methane from various sources , is now very strong. Climate change has importance for health in two main ways. First, some degree of climate change now appears inevitable, which means it is necessary to learn to adapt to climate change and to consider how to protect the population against its adverse effects. At the same time, major changes are needed in all sections of the economy to try to reduce human influence on climate change through reduction of greenhouse gas emissions mitigation. This implies substantial changes in energy use, transportation and in other sectors, which themselves are likely to have effects on health, for example through reduction of toxic air pollutants if dependence on the burning of fossil fuels is reduced. Strategies, policies and measures undertaken now and in the future to reduce potential adverse impacts of climate change.
The current debate about energy policy in Australia is firmly centred on energy costs and reliability. These are prominent issues for public health, given the morbidity and mortality related to heatwaves and cold weather, especially in disadvantaged communities. However, this policy discourse neglects the more significant health effects arising from global climate change GCC associated with fossil energy use.
The effects of climate change on humans are far reaching and include effects on health, environment, displacement and migration , security, society, human settlement , energy, and transport. Climate change has brought about possibly irreversible alterations to Earth's geological, biological, and ecological systems. A growing body of research explores the many impacts of climate change on human health, food supply, economic growth , migration , security, societal change, and public goods , such as drinking water. The consequences of these changes can help or hurt local human populations. For example, climatic changes in Siberia are expected to improve food production and local economic activity in the short to medium term.
- Не думаю, что это ключ. Фонтейн глубоко вздохнул. Его темные глаза выжидающе смотрели на Сьюзан.
Вы, должно быть, много путешествуете. Голос болезненно кашлянул. - Да. Немало. - В Севилью - по делам? - настаивал Ролдан.
Сеньор Ролдан поднял трубку с обычной для него самоуверенностью. - Buenas noches, - произнес мужской голос на беглом испанском; звонивший выговаривал слова чуточку в нос, словно был немного простужен. - Это гостиница. - Нет, сэр.
В его ноздрях торчала английская булавка.
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