File Name: emotional intelligence cognitive intelligence and job performance .zip
Harvard Business School Online's Business Insights Blog provides the career insights you need to achieve your goals and gain confidence in your business skills. The technical skills that helped secure your first promotion might not guarantee your next. Emotional intelligence is defined as the ability to understand and manage your own emotions, as well as recognize and influence the emotions of those around you. The term was first coined in by researchers John Mayer and Peter Salovey, but was later popularized by psychologist Daniel Goleman.
Emotional intelligence EI constitutes a unique form of intelligence and, from performance-based ability models, is conceptualized as the integration of several abilities: use, manage, understand, and regulate emotions. The relation between cognitive processes and EI has been less researched. Recent studies show that EI, when measured by performance-based ability models, plays a relevant role in cognitive processes when emotion is implicated in the tasks.
The aim of this study was to examine the execution on hot emotional and cool neutral cognitive tasks in two groups: one high and one low on EI, in order to determine the role of EI on cognitive processes.
The results showed that high and low EI groups did not differ on cool task performance, while the high EI group was better at carrying out the hot task. We discuss these results in relation to recent literature that considers the role of EI in cognitive processes.
Nowadays, it is assumed that cognition and emotion are two complementary aspects of the psyche, and that it is difficult to separate their influence in the performance of the activities of everyday life.
EI, as measured using ability and self-report instruments, has been linked to other factors such as work success, well-being, decision making, and stress management, among others Joseph and Newman, ; Martins et al. Examples of these tasks are Flanker Eriksen and Eriksen, , Go-nogo tasks, among others. One important issue is that the approach used to obtain the EI score affects the relation found between EI and cognitive processes.
Whether or not there is a correlation between EI and hot tasks could be discovered when self-reporting instruments or mixed models are used to evaluate EI Pilarik and Sarmany-Schuller, ; Webb et al. The literature suggests that EI is related to cognitive control only when the cognitive task has an emotional aspect and when EI is evaluated within performance-based ability models Webb et al. The aim of this study was to examine whether cognitive control implemented for persons high or low on EI groups matched on IQ depends on the emotional content of the task.
For that reason, we evaluated cognitive control on two cognitive tasks, one cool Flanker task , more centered in the specific process of attention suppress interfering information , and another hot IGT , more centered in decision-making, where there are emotionally significant consequences for each EI group low and high. We hypothesized that individuals with high EI would show a greater level of cognitive control on the hot tasks IGT , while individuals with low EI would show no such effect.
In addition, we expected that both EI groups would have similar accuracy in the cognitive control of interference on the cool task Flanker Eriksen and Eriksen, The high EI group included 15 participants 11 women; mean age: All participants came from Spain, and their first language was Spanish.
Their written and informed consent were obtained prior to participation. The study was carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The study involved two sessions of 1 h each. In the second session, participants were verbally instructed on how to complete the Flanker task and IGT described below.
The KBIT is an individually administered test with two subscales, Vocabulary measure of language and experience-related knowledge and Matrices measure of abstract reasoning or fluid intelligence skills , as well as a composite IQ score Kaufman and Kaufman, Mayer et al. Participants were asked to choose from four decks of cards, labeled A, B, C, and D, presented on a computer screen, in order to gain play money Bechara et al. Feedback of the play money won and lost was displayed after selecting a card.
The goal of the task was to gain as much play money as possible. Each trial started with a fixation point of variable duration randomly selected between and 1, ms Eriksen and Eriksen, Subsequently, a target was presented until a response was made, with a maximum duration of 2, ms. The target display consisted of an arrow pointing either right or left that was flanked by two arrows on each side. For half the trials the flanking arrows pointed to the same congruent direction as the central arrow, and they pointed to the opposite incongruent direction for the other half of the trials randomly assigned in each trial.
Participants had to indicate the direction of the central arrow by pressing the left button for leftward pointing central arrows, and the right button for central arrows pointing right, as fast as possible. Each participant performed trials divided in three blocks, with a brief break between blocks. Behavioral results and descriptive statistics are shown in Supplementary Material : Means and standard deviations SD of all the dependent variables included in the study for each group.
In order to determine whether cognitive control implemented for persons high or low on EI depended on the emotional content of the task, we evaluated cognitive control on two cognitive tasks, one cool Flanker task and the other hot IGT , for each EI group low and high. The present experimental study examines whether cognitive control implemented for persons high or low on EI depended on the emotional content of the task. In controlling the effect of IQ, we found no significant differences across the two groups on all measures of IQ.
We found that, consistent with our hypothesis, both groups, high and low in EI performance, had the same level on the cool task Flanker. Both groups took more time to respond to incongruent trials than congruent ones, that is to say, both groups seemed to use similar cognitive resources to cope with interfering information. Although these data failed to show a relation between cool cognitive tasks and EI, more investigations are needed to replicate these data.
In relation to the hot tasks, our data show that high and low EI groups differed in their performance. While low EI groups did not show a significant difference between advantage and disadvantage choices, the high EI group showed a significant difference.
These data are in line with previous behavioral and ERP studies that show that EI favors cognitive performance when emotional information is needed to resolve the task Reis et al.
Our results are consistent with research in work settings e. Also, Alkozei et al. Future research should replicate these findings in a larger sample, in order to generalize it to the general population or specific population, such as gifted student. In addition, future studies can rely on these results to examine the implications for well-being, social behavior and interpersonal relations in work or educational settings. PC was involved on acquisition of the data.
PC and PF-B designed the work, analyzed and explained the data, revised the work critically for important intellectual content, and approved the version to be published. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Front Psychol v. Front Psychol. Published online Feb 7. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Reviewed by: Ronald H. This article was submitted to Educational Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology. Received Jun 20; Accepted Jan The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
PDF 88K. Abstract Emotional intelligence EI constitutes a unique form of intelligence and, from performance-based ability models, is conceptualized as the integration of several abilities: use, manage, understand, and regulate emotions.
Keywords: emotional intelligence, cognitive processes, cool task, hot task, emotion. Introduction Nowadays, it is assumed that cognition and emotion are two complementary aspects of the psyche, and that it is difficult to separate their influence in the performance of the activities of everyday life. Hot Task Iowa Gambling Task Participants were asked to choose from four decks of cards, labeled A, B, C, and D, presented on a computer screen, in order to gain play money Bechara et al.
Cool Task Flanker Task Each trial started with a fixation point of variable duration randomly selected between and 1, ms Eriksen and Eriksen, Results Behavioral results and descriptive statistics are shown in Supplementary Material : Means and standard deviations SD of all the dependent variables included in the study for each group. Discussion The present experimental study examines whether cognitive control implemented for persons high or low on EI depended on the emotional content of the task.
Limitations and Future Directions Future research should replicate these findings in a larger sample, in order to generalize it to the general population or specific population, such as gifted student.
Author Contributions PC was involved on acquisition of the data. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Footnotes Funding. References Alkozei A. The role of emotional intelligence during an emotionally difficult decision-making task. Nonverbal Behav. Retrieved from Increases in emotional intelligence after an online training program are associated with better decision-making on the iowa gambling task. Emotional intelligence and emotional information processing.
Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition 50 7— The role of intelligence quotient and emotional intelligence in cognitive control processes. Effects of noise letterls upon the identification of a target letter in a non-search task.
Psicothema 18 42— Ability EI as an intelligence? Ability emotional intelligence, depression, and well-being. When to cooperate and when to compete: emotional intelligence in interpersonal decision-making. Performance-based ability emotional intelligence benefits working memory capacity during performance on hot tasks.
Why does self-reported emotional intelligence predict job performance? A meta-analytic investigation of mixed EI. Emotional intelligence: an integrative meta-analysis and cascading model. Madrid: TEA Ediciones. Brain Cogn. A comprehensive meta-analysis of the relationship between emotional intelligence and health.
Toronto: MHS. Performance on emotional tasks engaging cognitive control depends on emotional intelligence abilities: an ERP study.
Developments in trait emotional intelligence research. Emotional intelligence and decision-makinf od female students of social work in the iowa gambling task. Emotional intelligence predicts individual differences in social exchange reasoning.
The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation, to any qualified researcher. How does emotional intelligence EI affect job performance and job burnout? Direct or indirect? What role does psychological capital play? This study surveyed employees of various enterprises through questionnaires.
This paper examines how emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence are associated with job performance. We develop and test a compensatory model.
Emotional intelligence EI , emotional quotient EQ and emotional intelligence quotient EIQ , is the capability of individuals to recognize their own emotions and those of others, discern between different feelings and label them appropriately, use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior, and adjust emotions to adapt to environments. Goleman defined EI as the array of skills and characteristics that drive leadership performance. Various models have been developed to measure EI. The trait model , developed by Konstantinos V. Petrides in , focuses on self reporting of behavioral dispositions and perceived abilities. More recent research has focused on emotion recognition , which refers to the attribution of emotional states based on observations of visual and auditory nonverbal cues.
To demonstrate the utility of the emotional intelligence EI construct in organizational studies, this study focuses on the effect of EI on job performance among research and development scientists in China. This predictor effect is supported by results on a study of research and development scientists working for a large computer company in China. Our results also show that a self-reported EI scale developed for Chinese respondents, the WLEIS, is a better predictor of job performance than the scale developed in the U. Implications of the findings are discussed. Proponents of EI in the psychology, education and management disciplines have boosted the value of EI through abundant efforts e. However, up to now, scientifically solid evidence of the usefulness of EI as a psychological construct is still far from sufficient and there is still enormous debate about the meaning and usefulness of the construct. In contrast, Law, Wong and Song demonstrated that when defined and measured properly, EI was distinct from personality dimensions, and was a significant predictor of a bundle of desired outcomes, such as life satisfaction and supervisory ratings of job performance.
The use of a cascade model suggests a progressive pattern, starting from emotion perception, followed by emotional understanding and emotion regulation, with downstream effects on job performance. Moreover, CI moderated the relationship between EI and job performance, such that a decline in CI rendered the relationship more positive. Marc A. Is your work missing from RePEc?
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