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Forest Genetics And Tree Improvement Pdf

forest genetics and tree improvement pdf

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Studying the genetics of adaptation to new environments in ecologically and industrially important tree species is currently a major research line in the fields of plant science and genetic improvement for tolerance to abiotic stress.


Tree breeding is the application of genetic, reproductive biology and economics principles to the genetic improvement and management of forest trees. In contrast to the selective breeding of livestock, arable crops, and horticultural flowers over the last few centuries, the breeding of trees, with the exception of fruit trees, is a relatively recent occurrence. A typical forest tree breeding program starts with selection of superior phenotypes plus trees in a natural or planted forest, often based on growth rate, tree form and site adaptation traits. This application of mass selection improves the mean performance of the forest. Offspring is obtained from selected trees and grown in test plantations that act as genetic trials. Based on such tests the best genotypes among the parents can be selected.

How does the study of Forest Genetics improve tree species?

How much of genetic diversity is desirable in mass production of forest reproductive material? How mass production of forest reproductive material reduces genetic diversity? Relation between genetic diversity and mass production of forest reproductive material is discussed in a holistic manner. In industrial forest plantations, narrow genetic diversity is desirable and reproductive material is produced at clone level. On the other hand, in conservation forestry a wide genetic diversity is imperative. Beside management goals, a desirable level of genetic diversity is related to rotation cycle and ontogeny of tree species.

Tree improvement, or as it is often referred to as genetic improvement, is the process of improving the genetic quality of a tree species. Our forest trees are still genetically close to their wild state in their natural range. However, considerable variation exits in economic traits such as growth rate, stem form and wood quality between different populations within a species, and also between individual trees within populations. Opportunities, therefore, exit to improve the silvicultural value of a species by identifying the best wild seed sources; and also to select individuals within these to develop varieties that are considerably better than the wild material. Trees have adapted to these conditions and as a result they can have very different characteristics depending on the origin of the seed source.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Libby Published Biology. Vegetative propagation, in theory and in practice, offers advantages for research in several areas of forest biology. It also has a direct practical application in the use of rooted cuttings or other forms of vegetative propagules in afforestation. The most severe difficulties which presently prevent these theoretical advantages from being realised are associated with phase change and maturation of apical meristems.

forest genetics and tree improvement pdf

a combination of these two selection methods. Tree breeding follows the same basic principles applied in most genetic. improvement programs such as corn.

Forest Genetics and Tree Improvement

Introduction to forest genetics

Genetic improvement of forest tree species. I Assistech Ltda. Brazilian forestry sector is considered one of the most developed in the world, being the base for important industrial segments which use wood as raw material. Tree breeding has played an important role on improving the competitiveness of Brazilian forestry-based companies, especially for its positive reflexes on increasing adaptation, forestry productivity and wood quality. In spite of the importance of other forest trees for the economy, such as Schizolobium, Araucaria, Populus and Hevea, the main genera under genetic improvement in the country are Eucalyptus, Pinus, Acacia and Tectona.

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for breeding value in forest trees. Forest Genetics. 1: – Purnell, R.C.; Kellison, R.C. A tree improvement.

Genetic diversity and forest reproductive material - from seed source selection to planting

Introduction to Forest Genetics examines some of the basic genetic concepts typically used in forestry and tree improvement studies, including Mendelian and population genetics. It also describes techniques that are generally useful in tree improvement work, including individual tree selection and breeding, provenance testing, species and racial hybridization, and introduction of exotics. Organized into 19 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of forest genetics and problems associated with forest genetics. It then discusses concepts from basic genetics, including chromosome structure and function; DNA and RNA; nongenetic inheritance; and genotype versus phenotype. Other chapters focus on inbreeding: complete elimination of homozygous recessive trees; mutation and migration; and controlled pollination and vegetative propagation. The book also covers the establishment and measurement of test plantations; general principles and methods of selective breeding; choice of breeding method and type of seed orchard; heritability and genetic gain; geographic variation in Scotch pine and American trees; species and racial hybridization; chromosome studies; and polyploidy and haploidy breeding. This book is a valuable resource for foresters, professional tree breeders, and those with or without previous training in genetics or forestry.

Forest genetics is the study of hereditary variation in trees. Like all living organisms genes control the traits that trees exhibit. Pines, oaks, maples, etc. The individual tree that grows in the forest is a product of its genes and the environment in which it lives. Just as genetics can be used to improve the milk production of dairy cattle, the hunting ability of dogs, or the grain production of a corn variety, genetics can be used to improve the characteristics of trees.


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This paper reviews the literature on the economic evaluations of tree improvement for planted forests and investigates whether or not using improved reforestation stock from tree improvement programs is a good investment. The main findings from systematic web-based searches show that 1 tree improvement is an effective tool to improve forest productivity and to realize financial returns; 2 economic gains from wood production with selection for breeding traits e. The recent introduction of new biotechnologies in tree improvement, such as genomics-assisted tree breeding GATB , can achieve genetic gains in selected traits more quickly and effectively than traditional breeding approaches, providing economic incentives for forest managers to use better quality stock for planted forests. Therefore, we suggest that future research should 1 consider the additional benefit, extra research and development costs, and time saved by applying new biotechnologies in tree improvement e. Economic analyses along these lines could help policy makers, forest managers, and forest company owners better understand the trade-offs of alternative breeding objectives and make economically efficient investment decisions for planted forests.

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