File Name: health promotion planning an educational and ecological approach .zip
Green that can help health program planners, policy makers and other evaluators, analyze situations and design health programs efficiently. It guides planners through a process that starts with desired outcomes and then works backwards in the causal chain to identify a mix of strategies for achieving those objectives. In this framework, health behavior is regarded as being influenced by both individual and environmental factors, and hence has two distinct parts. The systematic use of the framework in a series of clinical and field trials confirmed the utility and predictive validity of the model as a planning tool. Reinforcing factors include factors that reward or reinforce the desired behavior change, including social support, economic rewards, and changing social norms.
During the past 20 years there has been a dramatic increase in societal interest in preventing disability and death in the United States by changing individual behaviors linked to the risk of contracting chronic diseases. This renewed interest in health promotion and disease prevention has not been without its critics. Some critics have accused proponents of life-style interventions of promoting a victim-blaming ideology by neglecting the importance of social influences on health and disease. This article proposes an ecological model for health promotion which focuses attention on both individual and social environmental factors as targets for health promotion interventions. It addresses the importance of interventions directed at changing interpersonal, organizational, community, and public policy, factors which support and maintain unhealthy behaviors.
This section considers the types of methods that are used in health promotion practice. This includes an overview of health promotion planning models to develop and quality assure effective interventions; settings-based health promotion and community participation and community development approaches. Working in collaboration with other sectors is covered in Section 4 - Health Promotion and Intersectoral working. A considerable body of knowledge has accumulated about the most effective ways of developing, implementing and evaluating health promotion programmes. Often referred to as 'best practice', the term is usually associated with health promotion planning or logic models. Health promotion planning models describe a process of problem definition or needs assessment, that allow for collection of information about need from a range of sources.
The scope of health promotion is determined as much by expected health outcomes as by methods and forms. From its purpose to enable people to gain greater control over the determinants of their health, "health promotion" can be defined as "any combination of educational and environmental supports for actions and conditions of living conducive to health" Green and Kreuter, The actions or behaviors in question may be those of individuals, groups, or communities; or of policymakers, employers, teachers, or others in organizations whose actions or practices control or influence the determinants of health. When the determinants are ones over which individuals can exert personal control, this control ideally resides with the individual. But with some aspects of complex lifestyle issues, especially those that affect the health of others e. Such strategies are reflected in the social policy targets of health promotion, which may call for aggressive and even coercive measures to regulate the behavior of those individuals, corporations, and government officials whose actions influence the health of others.
The kinds of health promotion programmes that students and schools implement reflect the health education models on which they are based. There are three main categories in which health education models can be broadly placed:. For more information about these models, see ' Characteristics of the health promotion and health education models '. Knowledge and understanding of health promotion is essential content for students studying health education at level 8 of the curriculum, and is required for students preparing for assessment against NCEA level 3 achievement standards and the Scholarship standard. Physical education and home economics teachers need to understand the processes and the theoretical origins of health promotion so that they can apply these processes in their teaching and learning programmes without making health promotion a specific content focus for their students. The behavioural change model came into use before the other two approaches.
Что. - Не существует алгоритма, не поддающегося взлому. - Нет, существует. Я видел его в Интернете. Мои люди несколько дней пытаются его взломать. - Это зашифрованный вирус, болван; ваше счастье, что вам не удалось его вскрыть. - Но… - Сделка отменяется! - крикнул Стратмор.
Быть может, вы могли бы… - Право же, без фамилии я ничего не могу поделать. - И все-таки, - прервал ее Беккер. Ему в голову пришла другая мысль. - Вы дежурили все это время. - Моя смена от семи до семи, - кивнула женщина.
Лампочки в конце коридора не горели, и на протяжении последних двадцати метров можно было различать только смутные силуэты. Женщина с кровотечением… плачущая молодая пара… молящаяся маленькая девочка. Наконец Беккер дошел до конца темного коридора и толкнул чуть приоткрытую дверь слева. Комната была пуста, если не считать старой изможденной женщины на койке, пытавшейся подсунуть под себя судно. Хорошенькое зрелище, - подумал Беккер.
Я сделал это, не выходя из Третьего узла.
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