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Collection And Presentation Of Data In Statistics Pdf Table

collection and presentation of data in statistics pdf table

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Data are usually collected in a raw format and thus the inherent information is difficult to understand. Therefore, raw data need to be summarized, processed, and analyzed. However, no matter how well manipulated, the information derived from the raw data should be presented in an effective format, otherwise, it would be a great loss for both authors and readers.

In this article, the techniques of data and information presentation in textual, tabular, and graphical forms are introduced. Text is the principal method for explaining findings, outlining trends, and providing contextual information. A table is best suited for representing individual information and represents both quantitative and qualitative information.

A graph is a very effective visual tool as it displays data at a glance, facilitates comparison, and can reveal trends and relationships within the data such as changes over time, frequency distribution, and correlation or relative share of a whole. Text, tables, and graphs for data and information presentation are very powerful communication tools. They can make an article easy to understand, attract and sustain the interest of readers, and efficiently present large amounts of complex information.

Moreover, as journal editors and reviewers glance at these presentations before reading the whole article, their importance cannot be ignored. Data are a set of facts, and provide a partial picture of reality. Whether data are being collected with a certain purpose or collected data are being utilized, questions regarding what information the data are conveying, how the data can be used, and what must be done to include more useful information must constantly be kept in mind.

Since most data are available to researchers in a raw format, they must be summarized, organized, and analyzed to usefully derive information from them. Furthermore, each data set needs to be presented in a certain way depending on what it is used for.

Planning how the data will be presented is essential before appropriately processing raw data. First, a question for which an answer is desired must be clearly defined. The more detailed the question is, the more detailed and clearer the results are. A broad question results in vague answers and results that are hard to interpret. In other words, a well-defined question is crucial for the data to be well-understood later.

Once a detailed question is ready, the raw data must be prepared before processing. These days, data are often summarized, organized, and analyzed with statistical packages or graphics software. Data must be prepared in such a way they are properly recognized by the program being used. We describe the roles and appropriate use of text, tables, and graphs graphs, plots, or charts , all of which are commonly used in reports, articles, posters, and presentations.

Furthermore, we discuss the issues that must be addressed when presenting various kinds of information, and effective methods of presenting data, which are the end products of research, and of emphasizing specific information.

Methods of presentation must be determined according to the data format, the method of analysis to be used, and the information to be emphasized. Inappropriately presented data fail to clearly convey information to readers and reviewers.

Even when the same information is being conveyed, different methods of presentation must be employed depending on what specific information is going to be emphasized. A method of presentation must be chosen after carefully weighing the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of presentation.

For easy comparison of different methods of presentation, let us look at a table Table 1 and a line graph Fig. If one wishes to compare or introduce two values at a certain time point, it is appropriate to use text or the written language. However, a table is the most appropriate when all information requires equal attention, and it allows readers to selectively look at information of their own interest.

Graphs allow readers to understand the overall trend in data, and intuitively understand the comparison results between two groups.

One thing to always bear in mind regardless of what method is used, however, is the simplicity of presentation. Group C: normal saline, Group D: dexmedetomidine. Text is the main method of conveying information as it is used to explain results and trends, and provide contextual information.

Data are fundamentally presented in paragraphs or sentences. Text can be used to provide interpretation or emphasize certain data. If quantitative information to be conveyed consists of one or two numbers, it is more appropriate to use written language than tables or graphs.

If more data are to be presented, or other information such as that regarding data trends are to be conveyed, a table or a graph would be more appropriate. By nature, data take longer to read when presented as texts and when the main text includes a long list of information, readers and reviewers may have difficulties in understanding the information. Tables, which convey information that has been converted into words or numbers in rows and columns, have been used for nearly 2, years.

Anyone with a sufficient level of literacy can easily understand the information presented in a table. Tables are the most appropriate for presenting individual information, and can present both quantitative and qualitative information. The strength of tables is that they can accurately present information that cannot be presented with a graph.

Another strength is that information with different units can be presented together. For instance, blood pressure, heart rate, number of drugs administered, and anesthesia time can be presented together in one table. Finally, tables are useful for summarizing and comparing quantitative information of different variables.

However, the interpretation of information takes longer in tables than in graphs, and tables are not appropriate for studying data trends. Furthermore, since all data are of equal importance in a table, it is not easy to identify and selectively choose the information required. For a general guideline for creating tables, refer to the journal submission requirements 1. Heat maps help to further visualize the information presented in a table by applying colors to the background of cells.

By adjusting the colors or color saturation, information is conveyed in a more visible manner, and readers can quickly identify the information of interest Table 2. All numbers were created by the author. Whereas tables can be used for presenting all the information, graphs simplify complex information by using images and emphasizing data patterns or trends, and are useful for summarizing, explaining, or exploring quantitative data.

While graphs are effective for presenting large amounts of data, they can be used in place of tables to present small sets of data. A graph format that best presents information must be chosen so that readers and reviewers can easily understand the information. In the following, we describe frequently used graph formats and the types of data that are appropriately presented with each format with examples. Scatter plots present data on the x - and y -axes and are used to investigate an association between two variables.

A point represents each individual or object, and an association between two variables can be studied by analyzing patterns across multiple points. A regression line is added to a graph to determine whether the association between two variables can be explained or not. If multiple points exist at an identical location as in this example Fig.

In this case, a correlation coefficient or regression line can be added to further elucidate the correlation. A bar graph is used to indicate and compare values in a discrete category or group, and the frequency or other measurement parameters i.

Depending on the number of categories, and the size or complexity of each category, bars may be created vertically or horizontally. The height or length of a bar represents the amount of information in a category. Bar graphs are flexible, and can be used in a grouped or subdivided bar format in cases of two or more data sets in each category.

The mean and standard deviation of the VAS scores are expressed as whiskers on the bars Fig. By comparing the endpoints of bars, one can identify the largest and the smallest categories, and understand gradual differences between each category.

It is advised to start the x - and y -axes from 0. Illustration of comparison results in the x - and y -axes that do not start from 0 can deceive readers' eyes and lead to overrepresentation of the results. One form of vertical bar graph is the stacked vertical bar graph. A stack vertical bar graph is used to compare the sum of each category, and analyze parts of a category. While stacked vertical bar graphs are excellent from the aspect of visualization, they do not have a reference line, making comparison of parts of various categories challenging Fig.

A pie chart, which is used to represent nominal data in other words, data classified in different categories , visually represents a distribution of categories. It is generally the most appropriate format for representing information grouped into a small number of categories. It is also used for data that have no other way of being represented aside from a table i.

A pie chart is also commonly used to illustrate the number of votes each candidate won in an election. A line plot is useful for representing time-series data such as monthly precipitation and yearly unemployment rates; in other words, it is used to study variables that are observed over time. Line graphs are especially useful for studying patterns and trends across data that include climatic influence, large changes or turning points, and are also appropriate for representing not only time-series data, but also data measured over the progression of a continuous variable such as distance.

As can be seen in Fig. If data are collected at a regular interval, values in between the measurements can be estimated. In a line graph, the x-axis represents the continuous variable, while the y-axis represents the scale and measurement values. It is also useful to represent multiple data sets on a single line graph to compare and analyze patterns across different data sets.

A box and whisker chart does not make any assumptions about the underlying statistical distribution, and represents variations in samples of a population; therefore, it is appropriate for representing nonparametric data. AA box and whisker chart consists of boxes that represent interquartile range one to three , the median and the mean of the data, and whiskers presented as lines outside of the boxes. Whiskers can be used to present the largest and smallest values in a set of data or only a part of the data i.

Data that are excluded from the data set are presented as individual points and are called outliers. The spacing at both ends of the box indicates dispersion in the data.

The relative location of the median demonstrated within the box indicates skewness Fig. The box and whisker chart provided as an example represents calculated volumes of an anesthetic, desflurane, consumed over the course of the observation period Fig. Most of the recently introduced statistical packages and graphics software have the three-dimensional 3D effect feature. The 3D effects can add depth and perspective to a graph.

However, since they may make reading and interpreting data more difficult, they must only be used after careful consideration. The application of 3D effects on a pie chart makes distinguishing the size of each slice difficult. Even if slices are of similar sizes, slices farther from the front of the pie chart may appear smaller than the slices closer to the front Fig. Finally, we explain how to create a graph by using a line graph as an example Fig. In Fig.

In many graphs, the x- and y-axes meet at the zero point Fig. The data can be clearly exposed by separating the zero point Fig.

Statistical data presentation

The present paper aims to provide basic guidelines to present epidemiological data using tables and graphs in Dermatology. Although simple, the preparation of tables and graphs should follow basic recommendations, which make it much easier to understand the data under analysis and to promote accurate communication in science. Additionally, this paper deals with other basic concepts in epidemiology, such as variable, observation, and data, which are useful both in the exchange of information between researchers and in the planning and conception of a research project. Among the essential stages of epidemiological research, one of the most important is the identification of data with which the researcher is working, as well as a clear and synthetic description of these data using graphs and tables. For example, the use of a certain type of data impacts the amount of time it will take to collect the desired information throughout the field work and the selection of the most appropriate statistical tests for data analysis. The correct preparation of tables allows researchers to present information about tens or hundreds of individuals efficiently and with significant visual appeal, making the results more easily understandable and thus more attractive to the users of the produced information. Therefore, it is very important for the authors of scientific articles to master the preparation of tables and graphs, which requires previous knowledge of data characteristics and the ability of identifying which type of table or graph is the most appropriate for the situation of interest.

collection and presentation of data in statistics pdf table

The purpose of putting results of experiments into graphs, charts and tables is two-fold. presentation methods, and learning to graph data one has collected oneself AppleWorks produce graphs and perform some statistical calculations.


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Data are usually collected in a raw format and thus the inherent information is difficult to understand. Therefore, raw data need to be summarized, processed, and analyzed. However, no matter how well manipulated, the information derived from the raw data should be presented in an effective format, otherwise, it would be a great loss for both authors and readers. In this article, the techniques of data and information presentation in textual, tabular, and graphical forms are introduced.

Tables are devices for presenting data simply from masses of statistical data. Tabulation is the first step before data is used for analysis. Tabulation can be in form of Simple Tables or Frequency distribution table i.

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The Quantitative data collection methods r ely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories. To help you ask the right things and ensure your data works for you, you have to ask the right data analysis questions. Last but certainly not least in our advice on how to make data analysis work for your business, we discuss sharing the load. A special table where each data value is split into a "leaf" usually the last digit and a "stem" the other digits.

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Вернувшись в лабораторию, Чатрукьян никак не мог решить, должен ли он идти домой. Неисправность ТРАНСТЕКСТА угрожала и базе данных, а легкомыслие Стратмора не имело оправданий. Всем известно, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ и главная база данных АНБ тесно связаны между. Каждый новый шифр после его вскрытия переводится на безопасное хранение из шифровалки в главную базу данных АНБ по оптико-волоконному кабелю длиной 450 ярдов. В это святилище существует очень мало входов, и ТРАНСТЕКСТ - один из .


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