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Entertainment Education Andocial Change Hi Tory Re Earch And Practice Pdf

entertainment education andocial change hi tory re earch and practice pdf

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Risky sexual behaviors are associated with the transmission of sexually transmitted infections STIs and unwanted pregnancies, both major health concerns for youth worldwide. This review studies the effectiveness of narrated mass media programs in promoting safer sexual practices among youth in developed and developing countries. Electronic and manual searches were conducted to identify experimental and quasi-experimental studies with robust counterfactual designs published between and the first quarter of Effect sizes were meta-analyzed using mixed-effects models.

Eight experimental and two quasi-experimental studies met our inclusion criteria. The aggregated sample size was 23, participants, with a median of participants per study. Entertainment education narratives had small but significant effects for three sexual behaviors.

No effects were found on attitudes. Although mass media entertainment had small effects in promoting safer sexual practices, its economies of scales over face-to-face interventions suggest its potential to be a cost-effective tool above an audience threshold.

The use of study participants from the general youth population and the use of mostly effectiveness trials mitigate concerns regarding its scalability. The overall paucity of high-quality studies affirms the need for strengthening the evidence base of entertainment education. Future research should be undertaken to understand the moderator effects for different subgroups and intervention characteristics.

Citation: Orozco-Olvera V, Shen F, Cluver L The effectiveness of using entertainment education narratives to promote safer sexual behaviors of youth: A meta-analysis, This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work. The findings and conclusions are those of the authors only.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Risky sexual behaviors are associated with the transmission of STIs and unwanted pregnancies, both major health concerns for youth worldwide[ 1 ]. Sexual intercourse remains the main transmission mechanism of HIV among youth [ 2 , 3 ], with inter-generational sex between young women and older men being an important driver in low-income contexts [ 4 , 5 ].

Teenage pregnancies are associated with reduction in socio-economic wellbeing of the mother and her children [ 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ]. Systematic reviews of HIV prevention interventions suggest that while these are effective in developed countries, they are usually not in developing countries [ 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 ]. With HIV prevention funds declining in the last decade [ 16 ], it is important to invest in effective prevention programs.

Government and development partners have used mass media to persuade youth to engage in safer sexual practices [ 17 , 18 ].

Mass media entertainment in a narrative format e. Though the latter is traditionally defined as the purposeful use of mass media to promote development objectives [ 18 , 19 ], entertainment education also includes commercial productions with prosocial messages that lack social objectives. Other theories emphasize its potential to reduce counter-arguing when content may be counter-attitudinal [ 22 , 23 ] and updating perceptions of prevalent social norms [ 24 , 25 ].

Entertainment education has received increased attention in international development given the limited effectiveness of traditional behavior change programs across different fields, including HIV [ 26 ]. It is a longstanding debate on how exposure to entertainment media may affect sexual behaviors [ 27 , 28 ]. While observational evidence suggests a relation [ 29 , 30 , 31 ], determining whether such exposure influences beliefs and behaviors with observational data is empirically difficult due to sample-selection issues [ 32 , 33 ].

In the last decade, a series of evaluations have emerged that better address selection issues [ 34 , 35 , 36 ]. Although sexual health is among the most common applications of entertainment education [ 37 , 38 ], the evidence base remains mostly qualitative [ 39 ]. Previous systematic reviews concluded that mass media interventions had small to medium effects on HIV testing [ 40 ] and risky sexual behaviors [ 41 , 42 , 43 ].

These reviews highlight the lack of high-quality evidence in this field. This meta-analysis aims to assess the effectiveness of entertainment education narratives on promoting HIV testing and reducing risky sexual behaviors of youth in developed and developing countries.

Youth was defined as individuals between 15 and 24 years of age. The scope of this review is narrower with respect to previous reviews of mass media interventions with sexual health objectives. This review will i be restricted to the mentioned age group, as its psychological development, relationship characteristics and sexual behaviors is likely to differ from those of older age cohorts e.

Following Cochrane Review standards, studies were eligible for inclusion if they were randomized controlled trials RCT , cluster RCTs, and quasi-experimental studies with robust counterfactual designs, including interrupted time series designs with control groups. We included studies that measured outcomes at least one week after exposure.

Studies of complex interventions those that included other information components, such as HIV information were included if the edutainment component played a prominent part. By homogenizing the interventions targeting youth, the review aims to better identify the effectiveness of the narrated or storytelling format.

Published studies were searched in English. The search period covered to the latest available year. We completed our searches on March 31, References from previous reviews and from retrieved articles were examined for additional studies.

Journal articles, published reports and for the case of economics research, published working papers were included prior to journal publication, the latter are standard practice in the economics literature. Authors were contacted for further information when required. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Review guidelines for assessing risk of bias [ 45 ].

Each item was scored as either low, high or unclear risk of bias. For cluster RCTs or natural experiments delivered that failed to cluster their standard errors; we used a conservative value for the intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.

We preferred intent-to-treat rather than per protocol estimates to minimize potential selection issues. Standard meta-analytical methods were used. The data was coded so that safer sexual behaviors translated into positive values. For studies that reported different types of primary behaviors, outcome values were aggregated into four behavior categories: i age-gap with sexual partners; ii number of sexual partners iii unprotected sex; and iv STI testing and follow up.

The primary analysis for each of the four behaviors includes some degree of heterogeneity as it synthesizes data from non-identical interventions and from similar but different outcome indicators. Study heterogeneity is recognized by applying the mixed-effects model [ 49 ] and by calculating the I 2 statistics [ 45 , 50 ].

Our mixed-effects models report statistics based on random-effects weights within and not between subgroups. The meta-analysis used the study as the unit of analysis and the mean of the selected outcomes we did not assume independence of outcomes within each study.

Each included study only had one-time point. The I 2 statistic describes the percentage of the variability in effect estimates that is due to heterogeneity rather than sampling error. To determine whether results were robust to methodological decisions, we re-ran the analysis for the primary outcomes by repeating the meta-analysis using fix-effects models; we removed one study at a time to determine if it substantially affected the meta-analyzed effect size, and we re-ran the analysis without studies that were rated with high risk-of bias defined as having more than two out of seven items evaluated at high-risk.

To further assess the likely non-independence of outcomes within a study, we ran a random-effects model combining all behavior outcomes. See Fig 1. Our electronic search strategy yielded 2, records. Forty-six studies were deemed as quantitative evaluations that suggested causal analysis.

Of these, the complete article was retrieved and assessed. Thirty-six studies did not meet our inclusion criteria. S2 List and S2 Table respectively provide the list and the reasons why they these studies were excluded. Thus, the meta-analysis is based on 10 studies.

Eight studies included behavior outcomes and two studies only secondary outcomes knowledge and attitudes. Study overlap with previous systematic reviews of mass media interventions was low: two of the ten included studies [ 54 , 55 ] were covered in at least one of the previous reviews.

Table 1 presents information regarding the studied populations and the interventions of the 10 studies. S3 Table provides information regarding their study designs and their outcomes. Included studies were reported between and , with half of them reported onwards.

The unweighted average age across studies was Most included studies took place in urban settings. While the experimental studies had control over program exposure, the non-experimental field evaluations were based on potential exposure to public broadcasts.

Controlled exposure was usually under one hour, while potential exposure was above 40 hours. As effectiveness trials, the meta sample was large with a total of 23, participants a median of participants per study. The endline outcomes were measured between two weeks and one year, with six studies measuring outcomes after three months or more.

Regarding the study design and quality, eight studies were experimental and two used quasi-experimental methods. Only one of the ten studies was not properly powered [ 60 ]. The support for risk-of-bias judgements is presented in S3 Table. The most common risk-of-bias was not fully blinding participants and assessors, followed by incomplete outcome data at follow-up.

The overall risk of bias is considered low for most studies. The data suggests that publication bias is likely to be present, though it should not substantially change the estimates of our effect sizes. On the one hand, the funnel plot shows a higher concentration of studies with positive results See S1 Fig. The latter test means that we would need to locate and include 45 null studies or 5. Five studies collected objective behavior measures, usually in addition to the self-reported data.

Objective measures included teenage birth rates, information-seeking behaviors, and percent of patients that got tested for HIV. Most self-reported items were similar to HIV questions used by the Demographic and Health Surveys program [ 61 ], a standardized health survey conducted in over one hundred countries. Fig 2 presents the effect sizes for the four behavior categories, and the overall pooled effect. S4 Table lists the SMD effects for individual behavior outcomes.

Age-gap, number of sexual partners, unprotected sex, and STI testing and follow up. Positive values represent safer sexual practices. Overall, individuals that were exposed to entertainment education narratives were more likely than comparison participants to engage in safer sexual practices.

We observed clinically small SMDs between 0. Our large meta-sample helped detect these small effects, for which individual studies were often not powered to do.

Universal Design for Learning: Meeting the Needs of All Students

Noun Project features the most diverse collection of icons and stock photos ever. Fisher College is more than a doorway to education - it's a pathway to your future. Our commitment to student engagement, creative inquiry, critical thinking, thoughtful expression and responsible citizenship is expressed in our baccalaureate and master's programs, as well as doctoral programs in areas of expertise. A global perspective and cultural diversity are reflected in all aspects of our research and teaching. If you had a job in high school and are going to college locally, see if you can continue working while in school. Report format - PDF. Our research serves members of all communities, ranging from students with disabilities to the aging population.

Risky sexual behaviors are associated with the transmission of sexually transmitted infections STIs and unwanted pregnancies, both major health concerns for youth worldwide. This review studies the effectiveness of narrated mass media programs in promoting safer sexual practices among youth in developed and developing countries. Electronic and manual searches were conducted to identify experimental and quasi-experimental studies with robust counterfactual designs published between and the first quarter of Effect sizes were meta-analyzed using mixed-effects models. Eight experimental and two quasi-experimental studies met our inclusion criteria. The aggregated sample size was 23, participants, with a median of participants per study. Entertainment education narratives had small but significant effects for three sexual behaviors.

I suggest using the accounting worksheet for all your year-end accounting problems. Your students will gain a deeper understanding of the American political system, from local to federal government. But you're free to add, delete, and rename these worksheets as you see fit. Be prepared to answer questions about the term 'government,' as well as functions of the U. These printable math worksheets for every topic and grade level can help make math class fun for students and Congress is the first branch of government created by the Constitution and it is primarily You can follow the process of bills becoming laws here on GovTrack.

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Creativity and Academics: The Power of an Arts Education

Entertainment-education EE is a communication strategy that uses popular media to engage with audiences on prosocial topics such as health, social tolerance and sustainability. The purpose of EE serials on radio, television or the internet is to introduce new ideas, norms and practices by means of storytelling, as well as to offer points of engagement for audiences to talk about the themes raised by the intervention. In this article, we introduce spreadable EE: an innovative approach that builds on transmedia storytelling strategies to reach and captivate target audiences for a longer period of time, and that entails collaboration with online platforms, communities and social influencers to stimulate meaningful conversations. In his lush garden, on a cloudy summer day, we see Bill Gates behind a laptop watching a video of Mark Zuckerberg. Gates, arms folded, looks up from his laptop.

The arts are as important as academics, and they should be treated that way in school curriculum. While the positive impact of the arts on academic achievement is worthwhile in itself, it's also the tip of the iceberg when looking at the whole child. Learning art goes beyond creating more successful students. We believe that it creates more successful human beings. NMSA is built upon a dual arts and academic curriculum.

Risky sexual behaviors are associated with the transmission of sexually transmitted infections STIs and unwanted pregnancies, both major health concerns for youth worldwide. This review studies the effectiveness of narrated mass media programs in promoting safer sexual practices among youth in developed and developing countries. Electronic and manual searches were conducted to identify experimental and quasi-experimental studies with robust counterfactual designs published between and the first quarter of Effect sizes were meta-analyzed using mixed-effects models.

Ever-increasing global warming has created a societal imperative to reach and engage youth, whose futures are at risk. In this paper, we evaluate the climate science knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, behavior and communication impact of an entertainment-education high school assembly program in a random sample of 49 schools from population of that received the intervention and a panel of 1, students.

Can they do that government worksheet

Universal Design for Learning UDL provides the opportunity for all students to access, participate in, and progress in the general-education curriculum by reducing barriers to instruction. Learn more about how UDL offers options for how information is presented, how students respond or demonstrate their knowledge and skills, and how students are engaged in learning. Katherine, a speech-language pathologist in a large elementary school, works hard to provide appropriate and relevant services to students in general education classrooms. She doesn't do much pull-out, instead preferring to work in classrooms using adapted classroom materials. As a result, she spends a lot of time modifying materials and developing personalized resources for specific students.

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honeycreekpres.org: Entertainment-Education and Social Change: History, Research, and Practice (Routledge Communication Series) (): Singhal.


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Странно, подумал он, что сегодня вечером уже второй человек интересуется этим немцем. - Мистер Густафсон? - не удержался от смешка Ролдан.  - Ну. Я хорошо его знаю. Если вы принесете мне его паспорт, я позабочусь, чтобы он его получил.

 - Тебе не нужно оставаться до конца смены. Мы с мисс Флетчер пробудем здесь весь день. Будем охранять нашу крепость. Желаю веселого уик-энда. Чатрукьян заколебался.

В помещении царила атмосфера полного хаоса. Сьюзан завороженно смотрела на захватывающую дух технику. Она смутно помнила, что для создания этого центра из земли пришлось извлечь 250 метрических тонн породы. Командный центр главного банка данных располагался на глубине шестидесяти с лишним метров от земной поверхности, что обеспечивало его неуязвимость даже в случае падения вакуумной или водородной бомбы. На высокой рабочей платформе-подиуме в центре комнаты возвышался Джабба, как король, отдающий распоряжения своим подданным.

В понедельник я проверю твою машину. А пока сваливай-ка ты отсюда домой.

 А метод грубой силы? - предложил Бринкерхофф.  - Можно ли с его помощью найти ключ. Джабба всплеснул руками. - Ради всего святого. Шифры-убийцы похожи на любые другие - они так же произвольны.

Сьюзан наклонилась к Дэвиду и шепнула ему на ухо: - Доктор. Он смотрел на нее с недоумением. - Доктор, - повторила .

A Place for Learning: The Physical Environment of Classrooms

Это почти четыреста долларов. Итальянец засмеялся.

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Точность - мое правило. - И где же это кольцо? - гнул свое Беккер. Клушар, похоже, не расслышал. Глаза его отсутствующе смотрели в пространство. - Странное дело, ей-богу, все эти буквы - ни на один язык не похоже.

3 Comments

  1. Joe S.

    07.05.2021 at 03:06
    Reply

    Entertainment-Education and Social Change introduces readers to Entertainment-Education and Social Change: History, Research, and Practice book cover.

  2. Santiago H.

    12.05.2021 at 19:20
    Reply

    PDF | On Jan 1, , WILLIAM J. BROWN and others published Social Change: Promises and Problems | Find, read and cite all the research you need Entertainment-Education Media Strategies for Social Change: Promises and Problems entertainment productions to promote socially desirable beliefs and practices.

  3. Camila N.

    13.05.2021 at 16:55
    Reply

    I was supervising a teacher who was enrolled in our program at the University of Massachusetts Amherst that focused on developing student self-knowledge, ego strength, trust and community in classrooms.

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