File Name: embodiment in attitudes social perception and emotion .zip
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Carr, E. The two sides of spontaneity: Movement onset asymmetries in facial expressions influence social judgments. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology in press.
Our series of experiments attempted to investigate whether the assumed embodiment effect can be reproduced in a simplified emotional categorization task for emotional faces and words.
We also wanted to test whether the embodiment effect can be detected in children because it is assumed that their bodily processes are especially closely linked with their sensory and cognitive processes. Our experiments involved child and adult participants categorizing faces and words as positive or negative as quickly as possible, while inducing a positive or negative facial or bodily state holding a straw in the mouth such that a smile or a frown was generated, or creating a positive or negative body posture.
The positive or negative facial and bodily states could therefore be either congruent or incongruent with the valence of the target face and word stimuli. Our results did not show any significant differences between the congruent and incongruent conditions in either children or adults. This suggests that embodiment effects either do not significantly impact valence-based categorization or are not strong enough to be detected by our approach considering the sample size in the present study.
The facial feedback hypothesis FFH posits that the musculature related to the formation of emotional facial expressions also influences the perception of emotional stimuli. The results of this study showed that participants rated stimuli such as cartoon strips as more funny when holding the pen with their teeth which facilitated smiling versus with their lips which inhibited smiling.
The elegance of this approach led to this study being one of the most prominent and most cited in the literature regarding the FFH. As Reed and McIntosh point out, the perception of body postures can be a crucial element of interpreting emotional states in others. For example, faces appear to be more positive when evaluated during reaching motions in more comfortable postures, while uncomfortable reaching motions increased the accuracy of identifying facial expressions Fantoni and Gerbino, ; Fantoni et al.
In another example, participants seemed to vary in both self-reporting their own emotional states and assessing the motional states of others depending on whether they were placed in an upright expansive posture, which produced more positive reporting, as compared to a more slumped posture Riskind and Gotay, Our present study was motivated by a desire to contribute to the discussion concerning the effects of embodiment on emotion perception, as well as to extend this line to questioning into the domain of development, i.
This possibility has been previously suggested based on the argument that until children gain sufficient experience and expertise in physically interacting with the surrounding world, effects of embodiment could impact their cognitive processes to a greater degree than might be the case for adults Needham and Libertus, Furthermore, it is also possible that children might be more strongly influenced than adults by effects of embodiment on the processing of emotions because sensorimotoric feedback could play an anchoring role in the building of cognitive frameworks for processing abstract concepts such as emotions Mandler, ; Winkielman et al.
We additionally decided to investigate the potential effects facial feedback could have on the processing of emotion words, as such stimuli are often encountered together with emotional faces during social interactions, and their perception may therefore be similarly affected by facial feedback. More recently, in a study where participants evaluated words as positive, negative, or neutral, the participants showed selective facial muscle activity particularly during the perception of positive word stimuli Weis and Herbert, With the above goals in mind, we conducted a series of basic valence-based emotional categorization experiments using both facial expressions Experiments 1a and 1b and emotion words Experiment 2 as targets.
Child and adult participants were asked to categorize the target stimuli as positive or negative as quickly as possible. We believed that the simplicity of this task, originally adapted from one used by Tottenham et al. Using this task, we conducted our experiments using a manipulation involving the facial musculature based on the original method used by Strack et al.
Experiments 1a and 1b tested for effects of embodiment on the categorization of facial expressions. Participants held a straw 1 either with their teeth in the positive condition or their lips in the negative condition in separate blocks. This approach was designed to either facilitate or inhibit the musculature involved in smiling, respectively. In Experiment 1b, we used a manipulation of back posture in an attempt test for a broader range of possible embodiment effects on the categorization of faces.
In the positive condition, participants either held a ball with their back producing an upright posture to facilitate the processing of positive stimuli while performing the categorization. In the negative condition, participants held a ball with their stomach producing a hunched posture to facilitate the processing of negative stimuli while performing the categorization. To test for developmental differences in effects of embodiment in Experiments 1a and 1b, we tested both 9-year-old children and adults.
Twenty 9-year-old children 9 females, 11 males and 20 adult students 15 females, 5 males; mean age: 23 years were recruited and tested at the University of Giessen in Germany.
Stimuli consisted of 48 24 positive, 24 negative colored photographs of facial expressions by eight models four men, four women , each of whom contributed three positive and three negative expressions. All photographs were provided by the laboratory of Marc D. Pell at McGill University Pell, The positive and negative stimulus categories were balanced in terms of arousal and valence Vesker et al.
Participants were informed about the testing procedure and signed informed consent forms by parents in the case of the child participants. Each participant participated in both the face-embodiment Experiment 1a and the posture-embodiment Experiment 1b experiments, in an order that was counterbalanced across participants within each age group. Both Experiments 1a and 1b involved participants categorizing facial stimuli as positive or negative as quickly as possible.
Each experiment contained two blocks in a randomized counterbalanced order during which participants adopted an embodiment state congruent with either positive or negative emotional states, and by extension the stimuli to be categorized. During each block, participants categorized all 48 faces, for a total of 96 trials per experiment. OpenSesame version 2. Positive embodiment states consisted of holding a straw with the teeth, approximating a smile Experiment 1a , and holding a volleyball between the upper back and the back of the chair, producing an upright posture Experiment 1b.
Negative embodiment states consisted of holding a straw with the lips, inhibiting smiling Experiment 1a , and holding a volleyball between the stomach and the thighs, producing a hunched-over posture Experiment 1b. In addition, the data of individual trials were excluded if the response time for these trials exceeded the limit of 2 SDs over the mean response time for each age group. This criterion led to the exclusion of trials from Experiment 1a, leaving trials to be analyzed, and trials from Experiment 1b, leaving trials to be analyzed.
For each experiment, we carried out two ANOVAs in SPSS version 22 using the raw per-trial measures of accuracy and the response time for correctly responded trials as the dependent variables in their respective analyses. No significant main effect or interactions of congruency of the embodiment condition were found see Table 1.
In Experiment 2, we looked for effects of embodiment on the categorization of emotion words using a similar task, since a previous study has shown developmental changes in the perception of positive versus negative words using such a task, albeit only in children up to the age of 6 years Bahn et al.
To test whether any facial effects of embodiment changed in the course of development, we tested 6-year-old children and adults in Experiment 2 using the same straw-based face manipulation as that in Experiment 1a. Twenty-two 6-year-old children 14 females, 8 males were recruited and tested at the University of Marburg. In addition, 20 adult students 16 females, 4 males; mean age: 22 years were recruited and tested with the same task at the University of Giessen in Germany.
All participants grew up as monolingual native German speakers, and typical development for the children was verified in the same manner as in Experiment 1. The stimulus material in the categorization task consisted of 48 German emotion terms, which were previously used in several other studies [ Bahn et al.
The word sets were controlled for the variables of valence and arousal using values of previously collected valence and arousal ratings from 60 typically developed 9-year-old children Bahn et al.
In addition, several linguistic variables were controlled that are known to influence word processing. For the final word sets, it was confirmed that:. All words were recorded in a soundproofed booth, spoken by one female and one male trained native speakers of standard German using neutral prosody. The testing procedure was analogous to that used in Experiment 1a, but with the participants tasked with categorizing emotion words instead of facial expressions as positive or negative.
Each of the 48 emotion terms was presented via headphones twice, once congruently primed and once incongruently primed by one of the two embodiment states previously used in Experiment 1a holding the straw with the teeth for a positive state and with the lips for a negative state in separate blocks for a total of 96 trials. Again, ANOVAs were carried out, one using the raw per-trial accuracy for each participant as the dependent variable and the other using raw per-trial response times for correctly responded trials as the dependent variable.
We found no significant main effect of the congruency of the embodiment condition or interactions between this factor and any of the other factors see Table 2. The results of our experiments reproduced the early positivity bias for words and faces reported by earlier studies using the same valence-based emotional categorization task Bahn et al.
Having not been able to detect embodiment effects using the face manipulation, we attempted to detect such effects using different manipulations. We manipulated posture by asking participants to either hold a ball with their back against the chair, producing an upright posture, or between their stomach and legs, producing a hunched-over posture as they performed our face-categorization task Experiment 1b. However, despite body manipulations having been shown to affect the perception of facial emotions Fantoni and Gerbino, ; Fantoni et al.
In summary, using our methodology, we were unable to detect any significant effects of embodiment on the categorization of either facial expressions or emotion words in either children or adults. Our sample sizes were similar to those used in a study using a nearly identical paradigm albeit with word primes instead of embodiment manipulations , which showed a significant main effect of priming congruency, as well as significant interactions involving priming congruency Vesker et al.
This suggests that either embodiment does not affect the categorization process of emotional stimuli, or that our methodology was simply not sensitive enough to detect such effects given our sample size. Strack argued that a crucial detail of the replication efforts, that participants were recorded to ensure they followed the procedure accurately, may have interfered with the effect of embodiment.
By contrast, in the original study by Strack et al. However, it is not entirely clear whether this effect of observation can be eliminated while also ensuring that participants, particularly children, properly follow the experimental procedure. Thus, in addition to testing larger samples of participants, future studies investigating such effects from a developmental perspective would most likely require some degree of covert observation of participants in order to satisfy the above requirements.
It must also be pointed out that the materials used in our experiments, including both the stimuli and the straws, differed from the materials used in the original method of Strack et al. Unlike our study, these studies used cartoon strips as stimuli to be rated, and pens or pencils for the embodiment manipulation, which are more rigid than the straws in our experiment. These differences in materials could have played a role in our results, as a recent meta-analysis of the FFE by Coles et al.
A final point to consider regarding Experiments 1a and 2 is that the FFA could have been reduced in magnitude by the very nature of our task.
By asking participants to merely categorize stimuli as positive or negative, we avoided the need for them to retrieve specific emotion labels in order to make the comparison between the positive and negative categories more balanced Kauschke et al. However, it is possible that because the muscles manipulated with the straws are linked to the specific expressions involving the mouth, this manipulation may not have had a significant impact on the type of higher-level categorization that our participants performed.
If true, our results would suggest that the FFE might apply more to specific emotional states rather than to the perception of broader valence categories, and that this relationship does not vary between childhood and adulthood. The Office of Research Ethics at the University of Giessen approved the experimental procedure and the informed consent protocol. Written informed consent was obtained from adult participants and the parents of child participants prior to their participation in the study.
The datasets used for our analyses are available on request to the corresponding author, as well as on the Zenodo platform under the title of this article. The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by The Office of Research Ethics at the University of Giessen.
MV and DB involved in the study design, data collection, analysis, and production of the manuscript. CK and GS involved in the study design, analysis, and production of the manuscript. MN and CS involved in the study design, data collection, and analysis. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Bahn, D. Perception of valence and arousal in German emotion terms: a comparison between 9-year-old children and adults. Buck, R. Nonverbal behavior and the theory of emotion: the facial feedback hypothesis.
Coles, N. A meta-analysis of the facial feedback literature: effects of facial feedback on emotional experience are small and variable. Darwin, C. The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. London: John Marry. Google Scholar. Duclos, S. Emotion-specific effects of facial expressions and postures on emotional experience.
Fantoni, C. Body actions change the appearance of facial expressions.
Our series of experiments attempted to investigate whether the assumed embodiment effect can be reproduced in a simplified emotional categorization task for emotional faces and words. We also wanted to test whether the embodiment effect can be detected in children because it is assumed that their bodily processes are especially closely linked with their sensory and cognitive processes. Our experiments involved child and adult participants categorizing faces and words as positive or negative as quickly as possible, while inducing a positive or negative facial or bodily state holding a straw in the mouth such that a smile or a frown was generated, or creating a positive or negative body posture. The positive or negative facial and bodily states could therefore be either congruent or incongruent with the valence of the target face and word stimuli. Our results did not show any significant differences between the congruent and incongruent conditions in either children or adults.
Research on embodiment is rich in impressive demonstrations but somewhat poor in comprehensive explanations. Although some moderators and driving mechanisms have been identified, a comprehensive conceptual account of how bodily states or dynamics influence behavior is still missing. Here, we attempt to integrate current knowledge by describing three basic psychological mechanisms: direct state induction , which influences how humans feel or process information, unmediated by any other cognitive mechanism; modal priming , which changes the accessibility of concepts associated with a bodily state; sensorimotor simulation , which affects the ease with which congruent and incongruent actions are performed. We argue that the joint impact of these mechanisms can account for most existing embodiment effects. Additionally, we summarize empirical tests for distinguishing these mechanisms and suggest a guideline for future research about the mechanisms underlying embodiment effects.
Embodiment in Attitudes, Social Perception, and Emotion. Paula M. Niedenthal. Laboratory in Social and Cognitive Psychology. CNRS and University of.
Слава Богу, разрешено хоть. Стратмор требовал запретить всяческий доступ, но Фонтейн настоял на. - В шифровалке нет камер слежения? - удивился Бринкерхофф. - А что, - спросила она, не отрываясь от монитора, - нам с Кармен нужно укромное местечко. Бринкерхофф выдавил из себя нечто невразумительное.
- Он похлопал Беккера по спине. - Получите удовольствие, профессор. Вы летали когда-нибудь на Лирджете-60. Беккер усмехнулся: - Давненько не летал. Со вчерашнего дня.
Беккер открыл конверт и увидел толстую пачку красноватых банкнот. - Что. - Местная валюта, - безучастно сказал пилот. - Я понимаю. - Беккер запнулся.
Шум генераторов, расположенных восемью этажами ниже, звучал сегодня в ее ушах необычайно зловеще. Сьюзан не любила бывать в шифровалке в неурочные часы, поскольку в таких случаях неизменно чувствовала себя запертой в клетке с гигантским зверем из научно-фантастического романа. Она ускорила шаги, чтобы побыстрее оказаться в кабинете шефа. К рабочему кабинету Стратмора, именуемому аквариумом из-за стеклянных стен, вела узкая лестница, поднимавшаяся по задней стене шифровалки.
Больше ему никто не помешает. В двенадцати тысячах миль от этого места Токуген Нуматака в полной растерянности застыл у окна своего кабинета. Сигара умами безжизненно свисала изо рта. Сделка всей его жизни только что распалась - за каких-то несколько минут.
Чатрукьян заколебался. - Я не могу. - Разумеется, не можете. Его же не существует.
Не понимаю, - сказала. - Мы же говорим не о реверсии какой-либо сложной функции, а о грубой силе. PGP, Lucifer, DSA - не важно. Алгоритм создает шифр, который кажется абсолютно стойким, а ТРАНСТЕКСТ перебирает все варианты, пока не находит ключ. Стратмор ответил ей тоном учителя, терпеливого и умеющего держать себя в руках: - Да, Сьюзан, ТРАНСТЕКСТ всегда найдет шифр, каким бы длинным он ни .
Он получал информацию со 148 камер кабельного телевидения, 399 электронных дверей, 377 устройств прослушивания телефонов и еще 212 жучков, установленных по всему комплексу АНБ. Директора АН Б дорого заплатили за осознание того факта, что двадцать шесть тысяч сотрудников не только огромная ценность, но и источник больших неприятностей. Все крупные провалы в сфере безопасности в истории агентства происходили внутри этого здания.
Он создал для себя воображаемый страховой полис, не доверив свой ключ ни единой душе. Конечно, чтобы придать своему плану правдоподобность, Танкадо использовал тайный адрес… тайный ровно в той мере, чтобы никто не заподозрил обмана. Он сам был своим партнером. Никакой Северной Дакоты нет и в помине. Энсей Танкадо - единственный исполнитель в этом шоу.
Подумал, не рассказать ли ей .
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