File Name: marxist and socialist feminism .zip
Marxist feminism is a philosophical variant of feminism that incorporates and extends Marxist theory. Marxist feminism analyzes the ways in which women are exploited through capitalism and the individual ownership of private property.
Because of its foundation in historical materialism, Marxist feminism is similar to socialist feminism and, to a greater degree, materialist feminism. The latter two place greater emphasis on what they consider the "reductionist limitations"  of Marxist theory but, as Martha E. Gimenez  notes in her exploration of the differences between Marxist and materialist feminism, "clear lines of theoretical demarcation between and within these two umbrella terms are somewhat difficult to establish.
Marxism follows the development of oppression and class division in the evolution of human society through the development and organization of wealth and production, and concludes the evolution of oppressive societal structure to be relative to the evolution of oppressive family structures, i.
In The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State , Friedrich Engels writes about the earliest origins of the family structure, social hierarchy, and the concept of wealth, drawing from both ancient and contemporary study. He concludes that women originally had a higher social status and equal consideration in labor, and particularly, only women were sure to share a family name.
As the earliest men did not even share the family name, Engels says, they did not know for sure who their children were or benefit from inheritance. When agriculture first became abundant and the abundance was considered male wealth, as it was sourced from the male work environment away from the home, a deeper wish for male lineage and inheritance was founded.
To achieve that wish, women were not only granted their long-sought monogamy but forced into it as part of domestic servitude, while males pursued a hushed culture of " hetaerism ". Engels describes this situation as coincidental to the beginnings of forced servitude as a dominant feature of society, leading eventually to a European culture of class oppression , where the children of the poor were expected to be servants of the rich. Engels rewrites a quote in this book, by himself and Marx from , "The first division of labor is that between man and woman for the propagation of children", to say, "The first class opposition that appears in history coincides with the development of the antagonism between man and woman in monogamous marriage, and the first class oppression coincides with that of the female sex by the male.
Gender oppression is reproduced culturally and maintained through institutionalized inequality. By privileging men at the expense of women and refusing to acknowledge traditional domestic labor as equally valuable, the working-class man is socialized into an oppressive structure which marginalizes the working-class woman.
Marx categorized labor into two categories: productive and unproductive. Marxist feminist authors in the s, such as Margaret Benston and Peggy Morton, relied heavily on analysis of productive and unproductive labor in an attempt to shift the perception of the time that consumption was the purpose of a family, presenting arguments for a state-paid wage to homemakers , and a cultural perception of the family as a productive entity.
In capitalism, the work of maintaining a family has little material value, as it produces no marketable products. In Marxism, the maintenance of a family is productive, as it has a service value, and is used in the same sense as a commodity.
Focusing on exclusion from productive labor as the most important source of female oppression, some Marxist feminists advocated for the inclusion of domestic work within the waged capitalist economy. The idea of compensating reproductive labor was present in the writing of socialists such as Charlotte Perkins Gilman who argued that women's oppression stemmed from being forced into the private sphere. Perhaps the most influential effort to compensate reproductive labor was the International Wages for Housework Campaign , an organization launched in Italy in by members of the International Feminist Collective.
Many of these women, including Selma James ,  Mariarosa Dalla Costa,  Brigitte Galtier, and Silvia Federici  published a range of sources to promote their message in academic and public domains.
Despite beginning as a small group of women in Italy, the Wages for Housework Campaign was successful in mobilizing on an international level. Many Marxist feminist scholars, in the vein of an analyzing modes of oppression at the site of production, note the effect that housework has on women in a capitalist system.
In Angela Davis ' Women, Race and Class , the concept of housework is to deconstruct the capitalist construct of gendered labor within the home and to show the ways in which women are exploited through "domestic slavery. Other Marxist feminist have noted the concept of domestic work for women internationally and the role it plays in buttressing global patriarchy. In Paresh Chattopadhyay's response  to Custer's Capital Accumulation and Women's Labor in Asian Economies , Chattopadhyay notes the ways in which Custer analyzes "women's labor in the garments industry in West Bengal and Bangladesh as well as in Bangladesh's agricultural sector, labor management methods of the Japanese industrial bourgeoisie and, finally, the mode of employment of the women laborers in Japanese industry"  in demonstrating the ways in which the domestic sphere exhibits similar gender-based exploitation of difference.
In both works, the gendered division of labor, specifically within the domestic sphere, is shown to illustrate the methods the capitalist system exploits women globally. Another solution proposed by Marxist feminists is to liberate women from their forced connection to reproductive labor.
In her critique of traditional Marxist feminist movements such as the Wages for Housework Campaign, Heidi Hartmann argues that these efforts "take as their question the relationship of women to the economic system, rather than that of women to men, apparently assuming the latter will be explained in their discussion of the former.
More recently, many Marxist feminists have shifted their focus to the ways in which women are now potentially in worse conditions as a result of gaining access to productive labor. Nancy Folbre proposes that feminist movements begin to focus on women's subordinate status to men both in the reproductive private sphere, as well as in the workplace public sphere.
Scholars and sociologists such as Michael Hardt ,  Antonio Negri ,  Arlie Russell Hochschild  and Shiloh Whitney  discuss a new form of labor that transcends the traditional spheres of labor and which does not create product, or is byproductive. Whitney states, "The daily struggle of unemployed persons and the domestic toil of housewives no less than the waged worker are thus part of the production and reproduction of social life, and of the biopolitical growth of capital that valorizes information and subjectivities.
The concept of emotional labor , particularly the emotional labor that is present and required in pink collar jobs, was introduced by Arlie Russell Hochschild in her book The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling  in which she considers the affective labor of the profession as flight attendants smile, exchange pleasantries and banter with customers. With the emergence of intersectionality  as a widely popular theory of current feminism, Marxist feminists remain critical of its reliance on bourgeois identity politics.
The nature of Marxist feminists and their ability to mobilize to promote social change has enabled them to engage in important activism. Clara Zetkin   and Alexandra Kollontai   were opposed to forms of feminism that reinforce class status.
They did not see a true possibility to unite across economic inequality because they argue that it would be extremely difficult for an upper-class woman to truly understand the struggles of the working class. For instance, Kollontai wrote in For what reason, then, should the woman worker seek a union with the bourgeois feminists? Who, in actual fact, would stand to gain in the event of such an alliance? Certainly not the woman worker. Kollontai avoided associating herself with the term "feminism" as she deemed the term to be too closely related to that of the bourgeois feminism that shut out the capability of other classes to benefit from the term.
Kollontai was a prominent leader in the Bolshevik party in Russia, defending her stance on how capitalism had shaped a rather displeasing and oppressing position for females that are part of its system. One of the reasons Kollontai had a strict opposition of the bourgeois women and proletariat or working-class women to have an alliance is because the bourgeois was still inherently using the women of the working class to their advantage, and therefore prolonging the injustice that women in a capitalist society are treated.
Critics like Kollontai believed liberal feminism would undermine the efforts of Marxism to improve conditions for the working class. Marxists supported the more radical political program of liberating women through socialist revolution, with a special emphasis on work among women and in materially changing their conditions after the revolution. Additional liberation methods supported by Marxist feminists include radical "Utopian Demands", coined by Maria Mies.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Feminism History. Women's suffrage Muslim countries US. First Second Third Fourth. General variants. Religious variants. By country. Lists and categories. Lists Articles Feminists by nationality Literature American feminist literature Feminist comic books. Theoretical works. Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon. A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy. Economic determinism Historical materialism Marx's dialectic Marx's method Philosophy of nature.
Related topics. Related categories. Main article: Intersectionality and Marxist feminism. The paradigm of international social development: ideologies, development systems and policy approaches.
New York: Routledge. Citing : Poonacha, Veena Gender within the human rights discourse. Bombay: Research Centre for Women's Studies. Women's University. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved Marxism and the oppression of women: toward a unitary theory. Leiden, Holland: Brill.
Citing : Benston, Margaret September Monthly Review. Morton, Peggy May Reproduced as : Morton, Peggy , "Women's work is never done Up from the kitchen. Up from the bedroom. Up from under. Women and economics: a study of the economic relation between men and women as a factor in social evolution. The Guardian. The power of women and the subversion of the community.
Bristol, England: Falling Water Press. Marxists Internet Archive. Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars. Toward an Anthropology of Women. New York: Monthly Review Press. Reprinted in : Nicholson, Linda The second wave: a reader in feminist theory.
Who pays for the kids? London New York: Routledge. See also : Baker, Patricia Autumn Gender and the Structures of Constraint by Nancy Folbre". Canadian Journal of Sociology.
Socialist feminism usually refers to the fourth branch of the classic four theories of second-wave feminism. An attempt to synthesize the insights of the other feminist theories, starting with Show page numbers Download PDF. Search form icon-arrow-top icon-arrow-top. Page Site Advanced 7 of
For socialist feminism, patriarchy overlapped but differed from the Marxist emphasis on the primacy of capitalism and class exploitation. Socialist feminism sought.
Marxist feminism is a philosophical variant of feminism that incorporates and extends Marxist theory. Marxist feminism analyzes the ways in which women are exploited through capitalism and the individual ownership of private property. Because of its foundation in historical materialism, Marxist feminism is similar to socialist feminism and, to a greater degree, materialist feminism.
Kinds of Feminism. The initials in parenthesis are the people who contributed the definition to the news group. Liberal Feminism. This is the variety of feminism that works within the structure of mainstream society to integrate women into that structure. Its roots stretch back to the social contract theory of government instituted by the American Revolution. Abigail Adams and Mary Wollstonecraft were there from the start, proposing equality for women. As is often the case with liberals, they slog along inside the system, getting little done amongst the compromises until some radical movement shows up and pulls those compromises left of center.
Socialist feminism , which connected the oppression of women to other oppressions in society, became increasingly important in the feminist theory that crystallized into academic feminist thought during the s. How was socialist feminism different from other kinds of feminism? Socialist feminism was often contrasted with cultural feminism , which focused on the unique nature of women and highlighted the need for woman-affirming culture. Cultural feminism was seen as essentialist : it recognized an essential nature of women that was unique to the female sex. Cultural feminists were sometimes criticized for being separatist if they tried to keep women's music, women's art, and women's studies apart from mainstream culture. The theory of socialist feminism, on the other hand, sought to avoid separating feminism from the rest of society. Socialist feminists in the s preferred to integrate their struggle against women's oppression with the struggle against other injustice based on race, class, or economic status.
Заставил меня сесть на мотоцикл. Смотрите сюда! - Он попытался поднять левую руку. - Кто теперь напишет материал для моей колонки. - Сэр, я… - За все сорок три года путешествий я никогда еще не оказывался в таком положении. Вы только посмотрите на эту палату. Мою колонку перепечатывают издания по всему миру.
Да, - ответил дружный хор голосов. - Так вот… - Соши шумно вздохнула. - Похоже, я ошиблась. - Что?! - чуть не подпрыгнул Джабба. - Мы ищем совсем не .
Он использовал подход, который никому из нас не приходил в голову. - А зачем это нам? - спросила Сьюзан. - В этом нет никакого смысла. Стратмор встал и начал расхаживать по кабинету, не спуская при этом глаз с двери. - Несколько недель назад, когда я прослышал о том, что Танкадо предложил выставить Цифровую крепость на аукцион, я вынужден был признать, что он настроен весьма серьезно.
Опоздала на самолет. Она кивнула. - Потеряла билет. Они не хотят и слышать о том, чтобы посадить меня в самолет.
Это его первый выстрел в публичном месте. Смит был прав. Между деревьев в левой части кадра что-то сверкнуло, и в то же мгновение Танкадо схватился за грудь и потерял равновесие. Камера, подрагивая, словно наехала на него, и кадр не сразу оказался в фокусе. А Смит тем временем безучастно продолжал свои комментарии: - Как вы видите, у Танкадо случился мгновенный сердечный приступ.
Это данные о сегодняшней производительности.
У нее оставалось целых пять часов до рейса, и она сказала, что попытается отмыть руку. - Меган? - позвал он и постучал. Никто не ответил, и Беккер толкнул дверь. - Здесь есть кто-нибудь? - Он вошел.
Возможно, это приманка, - предположила Сьюзан. Стратмор вскинул брови. - С какой целью. - Танкадо мог посылать фиктивные сообщения на неиспользованный адрес в надежде, что мы его обнаружим и решим, что он обеспечил себе защиту.
Три. Она перевела взгляд на пустую шифровалку. Скорее бы просигналил ее терминал.
Бринкерхофф пожал плечами: - Быть может, ребята заняты сложной диагностикой. Мидж покачала головой: - Настолько сложной, что она длится уже восемнадцать часов? - Она выдержала паузу. - Маловероятно. Помимо всего прочего, в списке очередности указано, что это посторонний файл. Надо звонить Стратмору.
На коммутатор поступает сообщение. Фонтейн тотчас повернулся к стене-экрану. Пятнадцать секунд спустя экран ожил. Сначала изображение на экране было смутным, точно смазанным сильным снегопадом, но постепенно оно становилось все четче и четче.
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