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Caribbean And South America Geography Notes Pdf

caribbean and south america geography notes pdf

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The geography of South America contains many diverse regions and climates. Geographically, South America is generally considered a continent forming the southern portion of the landmass of the Americas , south and east of the Panama — Colombia border by most authorities, or south and east of the Panama Canal by some. South and North America are sometimes considered a single continent or supercontinent , while constituent regions are infrequently considered subcontinents. South America became attached to North America only recently geologically speaking with the formation of the Isthmus of Panama some 3 million years ago, which resulted in the Great American Interchange. The Andes , likewise a comparatively young and seismically restless mountain range, runs down the western edge of the continent; the land to the east of the northern Andes is largely tropical rain forest , the vast Amazon River basin.

South America

It is the southern portion of the landmass generally referred to as the New World, the Western Hemisphere , or simply the Americas. The continent is compact and roughly triangular in shape, being broad in the north and tapering to a point— Cape Horn , Chile—in the south.

South America is bounded by the Caribbean Sea to the northwest and north, the Atlantic Ocean to the northeast, east, and southeast, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. In the northwest it is joined to North America by the Isthmus of Panama , a land bridge narrowing to about 50 miles 80 km at one point. Relatively few islands rim the continent, except in the south. These include the glaciated coastal archipelagoes of Argentina and Chile. The Falkland Malvinas Islands are east of southern Argentina.

To the north, the West Indies stretch from Trinidad to Florida, but those islands usually are associated with North America. Of the remainder, most are small oceanic islands off the coasts of South America, including the Galapagos Islands , Ecuador , in the Pacific Ocean. South America has a total area of about 6,, square miles 17,, square km , or roughly one-eighth of the land surface of Earth.

The name America is derived from that of the Italian navigator Amerigo Vespucci , one of the earliest European explorers of the New World. The term America originally was applied only to South America, but the designation soon was applied to the entire landmass. Because Mexico and Central America share an Iberian heritage with nearly all of South America, this entire region frequently is grouped under the name Latin America.

In the larger, eastern portion are found a number of stable shields forming highland regions, separated by large basins including the vast Amazon basin. The western portion is occupied almost entirely by the Andes Mountains. The Andes—formed as the South American Plate drifted westward and forced the oceanic plate to the west under it—constitute a gigantic backbone along the entire Pacific coast of the continent.

No other continent—except Antarctica—penetrates so far to the south. Although the northern part of South America extends north of the Equator and four-fifths of its landmass is located within the tropics, it also reaches subantarctic latitudes. Much of the high Andes lie within the tropics but include extensive zones of temperate or cold climate in the vicinity of the Equator —a circumstance that is unique. The great range in elevation produces an unrivaled diversity of climatic and ecological zones, which is probably the most prominent characteristic of South American geography.

The original inhabitants of South America are believed to have descended from the same Asiatic peoples who migrated to North America from Siberia during the most recent Wisconsin ice age.

Few of these peoples, however, survived the arrival of Europeans after , most succumbing to disease or mixing with people of European and especially in Brazil African origin. Some parts of the continent are now industrialized, with modern cities, but the people in rural areas still follow an agricultural way of life. The wealth of mineral products and renewable resources is considerable, yet economic development in most of the continent lags behind the more industrially advanced regions of the world.

Nonetheless, concern has arisen about the rapidly increasing and often destructive exploitation of these resources. For discussion of individual countries of the continent, see specific articles by name—e. For discussion of the indigenous peoples of the continent, see the articles South American Indian ; and pre-Columbian civilizations.

Related topics are discussed in the articles Latin America, history of , and Latin American literature. Article Contents. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions.

Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Daniel W. A survey of South America's diverse landscapes. Villavincencio Chapel in the Andes Mountains, Argentina. Britannica Quiz. Journey to South America: Fact or Fiction? Is the capital of Brazil known for its architecture?

Is Argentina a large country? Sort fact from fiction—and learn about climate, capitals, and more—in this journey through South America.

Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Load Next Page. Chan Chan. Colonia del Sacramento. Easter Island. Galapagos Islands. Los Glaciares. Machu Picchu. Nazca Lines.

Latin America

Latin America [a] is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Romance languages such as Spanish , Portuguese , and French are predominantly spoken. Some subnational regions such as Quebec and parts of the United States where Romance languages are primarily spoken are not included due to the countries as a whole being a part of Anglo America an exception to this is Puerto Rico , which is almost always included within the definition of Latin America despite being a territory of the United States. The term is broader than categories such as Hispanic America , which specifically refers to Spanish-speaking countries and Ibero-America , which specifically refers to both Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries. The term is also more recent in origin. The term "Latin America" was first used in an conference with the title "Initiative of America. Including French-speaking territories, Latin America would consist of 20 countries and 14 dependent territories that cover an area that stretches from Mexico to Tierra del Fuego and includes much of the Caribbean.

caribbean and south america geography notes pdf

Geography of South America

Middle America, the geographic realm between the United States and the continent of South America, consists of three main regions: the Caribbean, Mexico, and the Central American republics. The Caribbean region, the most culturally diverse of the three, consists of more than seven thousand islands that stretch from the Bahamas to Barbados. Hispaniola is split between Haiti in the west and the Dominican Republic in the east.

South America

South America: Physical Geography

South America is a continent located in the western hemisphere. It is the fourth largest continent. Its northern part is broad and it gradually tapers towards the south making peninsula. It is bounded by the Caribbean Sea to the northwest and north , the Atlantic Ocean to the northeast, east, and southeast , and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It is situated between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. It is connected to the North America through the Isthmus of Panama. Andes Mountain Range Fold Mountain lies in this continent which is the second highest mountain range of the world, after Himalayas.

Click Here. Skip to main content. World Geography General South America. Largest lak of South America.

The urban population is growing at a much faster rate than that of the rural population. AP Human Geography. Our internet quizzes include questions about all the countries in the world that will challenge your brain. Fundamental geographic concepts and regions are presented in concise chapters that provide a foundational framework for understanding development patterns around the world. Look at the map of North and South America on the following page. South America can be divided into four parts.

Chapter Notes

It is the southern portion of the landmass generally referred to as the New World, the Western Hemisphere , or simply the Americas. The continent is compact and roughly triangular in shape, being broad in the north and tapering to a point— Cape Horn , Chile—in the south. South America is bounded by the Caribbean Sea to the northwest and north, the Atlantic Ocean to the northeast, east, and southeast, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. In the northwest it is joined to North America by the Isthmus of Panama , a land bridge narrowing to about 50 miles 80 km at one point. Relatively few islands rim the continent, except in the south. These include the glaciated coastal archipelagoes of Argentina and Chile. The Falkland Malvinas Islands are east of southern Argentina.

South America can be divided into three physical region s: mountain s and highlands, river basin s, and coastal plain s. Mountains and coastal plains generally run in a north-south direction, while highlands and river basins generally run in an east-west direction. A biome is a community of animals and plants that spreads over an area with a relatively uniform climate. The range covers about 8, kilometers 5, miles. Situated on the far western edge of the continent, the Andes stretch from the southern tip to the northernmost coast of South America.

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It is the southern portion of the landmass generally referred to as the New World, the Western Hemisphere , or simply the Americas. The continent is compact and roughly triangular in shape, being broad in the north and tapering to a point— Cape Horn , Chile—in the south. South America is bounded by the Caribbean Sea to the northwest and north, the Atlantic Ocean to the northeast, east, and southeast, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. In the northwest it is joined to North America by the Isthmus of Panama , a land bridge narrowing to about 50 miles 80 km at one point. Relatively few islands rim the continent, except in the south.

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(IGP) IAS Pre: GS - Geography - World Geography General: South America

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2 Comments

  1. Katherine C.

    25.04.2021 at 08:11
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    – The French, Dutch, and English speaking parts of. Central and South America in the Caribbean Region. Page 3. Boundaries of. Latin America. • On the West.

  2. Pilato M.

    28.04.2021 at 09:08
    Reply

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