File Name: kitchen hygiene and sanitation .zip
Hygiene is a series of practices performed to preserve health. According to the World Health Organization WHO , "Hygiene refers to conditions and practices that help to maintain health and prevent the spread of diseases. Many people equate hygiene with 'cleanliness,' but hygiene is a broad term. It includes such personal habit choices as how frequently to take a shower or bath, wash hands , trim fingernails , and wash clothes. It also includes attention to keeping surfaces in the home and workplace, including bathroom facilities, clean and pathogen -free.
Some regular hygiene practices may be considered good habits by the society, while the neglect of hygiene can be considered disgusting, disrespectful, or threatening. Hygiene is a concept related to cleanliness, health and medicine. It is as well related to personal and professional care practices. In medicine and everyday life settings, hygiene practices are employed as preventive measures to reduce the incidence and spreading of disease.
Hygiene practices vary, and what is considered acceptable in one culture might not be acceptable in another. In the manufacturing of food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and other products, good hygiene is a critical component of quality assurance. The terms cleanliness and hygiene are often used interchangeably, which can cause confusion. In general, hygiene refers to practices that prevent spread of disease-causing organisms.
Cleaning processes e. Other uses of the term appear in phrases including body hygiene, personal hygiene, sleep hygiene , mental hygiene , dental hygiene , and occupational hygiene , used in connection with public health.
Hygiene is also the name of a branch of science that deals with the promotion and preservation of health. Medical hygiene pertains to the hygiene practices related to the administration of medicine and medical care that prevents or minimizes the spread of disease. Most of these practices were developed in the 19th century and were well established by the midth century.
Some procedures such as disposal of medical waste were refined in response to lateth century disease outbreaks , notably AIDS and Ebola. Home hygiene pertains to the hygiene practices that prevent or minimize the spread of disease at home and other everyday settings such as social settings, public transport, the workplace, public places, etc.
Hygiene in a variety of settings plays an important role in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. At present, these components of hygiene tend to be regarded as separate issues, although based on the same underlying microbiological principles. Preventing the spread of diseases means breaking the chain of infection transmission. Simply put, if the chain of infection is broken, infection cannot spread. In response to the need for effective codes of hygiene in home and everyday life settings the International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene has developed a risk-based approach based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point HACCP , also referred to as "targeted hygiene.
The main sources of infection in the home  are people who are carriers or are infected , foods particularly raw foods and water, and domestic animals in the U.
Sites that accumulate stagnant water—such as sinks, toilets , waste pipes, cleaning tools, face cloths, etc. Pathogens potentially infectious bacteria, viruses etc.
Thus, when circumstances combine, people are exposed, either directly or via food or water, and can develop an infection. The main "highways" for the spread of pathogens in the home are the hands, hand and food contact surfaces, and cleaning cloths and utensils e.
Pathogens can also be spread via clothing and household linens, such as towels. Utilities such as toilets and wash basins, for example, were invented for dealing safely with human waste but still have risks associated with them.
Safe disposal of human waste is a fundamental need; poor sanitation is a primary cause of diarrhea disease in low income communities. Respiratory viruses and fungal spores are spread via the air.
Good home hygiene means engaging in hygiene practices at critical points to break the chain of infection. Hand hygiene is defined as hand washing or washing hands and nails with soap and water or using a water less hand sanitizer. Hand hygiene is central to preventing the spread of infectious diseases in home and everyday life settings. In situations where hand washing with soap is not an option e.
They can be used in addition to hand washing to minimize risks when caring for "at-risk" groups. The WHO World Health Organization recommends hand washing with ash if soap is not available in critical situations,  schools without access to soap  and other difficult situations like post-emergencies where use of clean sand is recommended, too. Correct respiratory and hand hygiene when coughing and sneezing reduces the spread of pathogens particularly during the cold and flu season.
Food hygiene is concerned with the hygiene practices that prevent food poisoning. The five key principles of food hygiene, according to WHO , are: . Routine cleaning of hand, food, drinking water sites and surfaces such as toilet seats and flush handles, door and tap handles, work surfaces, bath and basin surfaces in the kitchen, bathroom and toilet reduces the risk of spread of pathogens.
In case of using public toilets, you can always use a Toilet Seat Sanitizer to spray on the seat before sitting on it. A toilet seat sanitizer helps to kill bacteria just as any other sanitizer which helps to protect from UTI. Pathogens can survive in the scum or scale left behind on baths, showers , and washbasins after washing and bathing. Water left stagnant in the pipes of showers can be contaminated with pathogens that become airborne when the shower is turned on.
If a shower has not been used for some time, it should be left to run at a hot temperature for a few minutes before use. Thorough cleaning is important in preventing the spread of fungal infections. Primary sites of fungal growth are inanimate surfaces, including carpets and soft furnishings. Laundry hygiene involves practices that prevent disease and its spread via soiled clothing and household linens such as towels.
Cloths or other fabric items used during food preparation, or for cleaning the toilet or cleaning up material such as feces or vomit are a particular risk. Microbiological and epidemiological data indicates that clothing and household linens etc. The lack of quantitative data linking contaminated clothing to infection in the domestic setting makes it difficult to assess the extent of this risk. In the home, this routine should be carried out as part of a multibarrier approach to hygiene which includes hand, food, respiratory and other hygiene practices.
Infectious diseases risks from contaminated clothing etc. It increases in circumstances where someone has reduced immunity to infection. Hygiene measures, including laundry hygiene, are an important part of reducing spread of antibiotic resistant strains. The risks are not apparent until, for example, they are admitted to hospital, when they can become "self infected" with their own resistant organisms following a surgical procedure.
As persistent nasal, skin or bowel carriage in the healthy population spreads "silently" across the world, the risks from resistant strains in both hospitals and the community increases. Skin-to-skin contact including unabraded skin and indirect contact with contaminated objects such as towels, sheets and sports equipment seem to represent the mode of transmission.
During laundering, temperature and detergent work to reduce microbial contamination levels on fabrics. Soil and microbes from fabrics are severed and suspended in the wash water. These are then "washed away" during the rinse and spin cycles. In addition to physical removal, micro-organisms can be killed by thermal inactivation which increases as the temperature is increased.
Chemical inactivation of microbes by the surfactants and activated oxygen-based bleach used in detergents contributes to the hygiene effectiveness of laundering. Adding hypochlorite bleach in the washing process achieves inactivation of microbes. A number of other factors can contribute including drying and ironing.
Drying laundry on a line in direct sunlight is known to reduce pathogens. Laundry detergents contain a mix of ingredients including surfactants, builders, optical brighteners, etc. Although activated oxygen bleach is included in many powder detergents to digest and remove stains, it produces some chemical inactivation of bacteria, fungi and viruses.
As a rule of thumb, powders and tablets normally contain an activated oxygen bleach, but liquids and all products liquid or powder used for "coloureds" do not. Surfactants also exert some chemical inactivation action against certain species although the extent of their action is not known. The consequent variability in the data i. As a result, there is significant variability in the recommendations for hygienic laundering of clothing etc.
Of concern is recent data suggesting that, in reality, modern domestic washing machines do not reach the temperature specified on the machine controls. Medical hygiene pertains to the hygiene practices that prevents or minimizes disease and the spreading of disease in relation to administering medical care to those who are infected or who are more "at risk" of infection in the home. Across the world, governments are increasingly under pressure to fund the level of healthcare that people expect.
Care of increasing numbers of patients in the community, including at home is one answer, but can be fatally undermined by inadequate infection control in the home. Increasingly, all of these "at-risk" groups are cared for at home by a carer who may be a household member who thus requires a good knowledge of hygiene.
It also includes the very young, patients discharged from hospital, taking immuno-suppressive drugs or using invasive systems, etc. For patients discharged from hospital, or being treated at home special "medical hygiene" see above procedures may need to be performed for them e.
Antiseptics may be applied to cuts, wounds abrasions of the skin to prevent the entry of harmful bacteria that can cause sepsis. Day-to-day hygiene practices, other than special medical hygiene procedures  are no different for those at increased risk of infection than for other family members. The difference is that, if hygiene practices are not correctly carried out, the risk of infection is much greater. Chemical disinfectants are products that kill pathogens.
If the product is a disinfectant, the label on the product should say "disinfectant" or "kills" pathogens. Some commercial products, e. Not all disinfectants kill all types of pathogens. All disinfectants kill bacteria called bactericidal. Some also kill fungi fungicidal , bacterial spores sporicidal or viruses virucidal. An antibacterial product is a product that acts against bacteria in some unspecified way. Some products labelled "antibacterial" kill bacteria while others may contain a concentration of active ingredient that only prevent them multiplying.
It is, therefore, important to check whether the product label states that it "kills" bacteria. The term sanitizer has been used to define substances that both clean and disinfect. More recently this term has been applied to alcohol-based products that disinfect the hands alcohol hand sanitizers. Alcohol hand sanitizers however are not considered to be effective on soiled hands. The term biocide is a broad term for a substance that kills, inactivates or otherwise controls living organisms.
Federal government websites often end in. The site is secure. Upton Sinclair's novel took aim at the poor working conditions in a Chicago meatpacking house. Skip navigation The. Keep Your Food Safe During Emergencies The loss of power from high winds, snow, or ice could jeopardize the safety of your food.
For microbiologist Jeff Kornacki, PhD, danger lurks around the corner in every restaurant and supermarket he visits. The food safety consultant admits that he eats at fast food restaurants, but with some trepidation. Most of the foodborne illnesses experienced today are preventable if farmers, chefs, food processors, cooks, and servers focus on safety, according to the Center for Science in the Public Interest, a nonprofit consumer group. The FDA recently proposed two major rules for the Act regarding preventive controls in human food and produce safety. There are three main types of hazards or contaminants that can cause unsafe food: Biological, chemical, and physical.
View Statistics Detail. Toggle navigation. Home Volume 12, Issue 4, May Isnadi. Abstract Food provider at university is one of places that needs to implement standards of food hygiene and sanitation FHS. This study used mixed method evaluation with sequential explanatory design through two stages.
Food handlers can be a significant source of harmful microorganisms that cause illness; thus, washing your hands regularly using proper techniques is one of the most important aspects of working in food service. Doing so helps reduce the incidence of spreading germs, including viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens , including those that might exist on raw foods as you prepare them. While handwashing seems fairly straightforward, food handlers may not use the correct techniques or allow sufficient time to properly wash their hands. Anyone who handles food must always wash their hands with soap and running water; hand sanitizers are not recommended as a substitute for handwashing. Also, the ingredients in a hand sanitizer product must be approved food additives by the FDA, since the ingredients from the hand sanitizer can become part of the food in trace amounts by a food handler. Handwashing should always be done at a designated handwashing sink once you have entered the kitchen even if you washed your hands after using the restroom.
Hygiene is a series of practices performed to preserve health.
- Смотрите. Все прочитали: - …в этих бомбах использовались разные виды взрывчатого вещества… обладающие идентичными химическими характеристиками. Эти изотопы нельзя разделить путем обычного химического извлечения.
Она услышала, что в кабине работает вентиляция. Лифт. Почему же не открывается дверца. Вглядевшись, она как в тумане увидела еще одну панель с буквами алфавита от А до Z и тут же вспомнила, что нужно ввести шифр. Клубы дыма начали вытекать из треснувших оконных рам.
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