File Name: henry ford and mass production .zip
American Jewish History Handlin maintained that the prevailing temper of the era was overwhelmingly tolerant toward Jews and that America's image of them exhibited none of the demonic depictions that had pervaded European attitudes toward Jews since medieval times.
Handlin reiterated his contentions in Commentary magazine and in his book, Adventure in Freedom. Although subsequent studies of American antisemitism modified some of Handlin's conclusions, none of them disputed his claim concerning the absence of demonic imagery in pre-twentieth-century America. They showed that despite the remarkable economic mobility and success of nineteenth-century Jewish Americans, the United States had not been as free from stereotyping and animosity toward Jews as Handlin had surmised.
A closer look at the evidence also reveals that demonic [End Page ] representations of the Jew appeared frequently in American culture throughout the century.
Demonization of Jews originated in medieval Christianity. This characterization accused the Jews of crucifying Jesus and associated them with Satan and the Antichrist, who is the Devil's agent for visiting evil and destruction on mankind. By the fourteenth century European Christians were charging Jews with ritually murdering children and using Christian blood in religious ceremonies, poisoning water and food, carrying and spreading loathsome diseases and the plague, engaging in sexual perversions, and conspiring to destroy Christendom.
In the United States during the nineteenth century, depictions of Jews similar to these can be found in sermons, in religious and secular literature, in school texts, and in the press. Whether exposure to this imagery affected American Christian attitudes and behavior toward Jews is a moot question. No doubt some people were influenced by what they heard or read and became antagonistic toward Jews, but most others hearing and reading the same things did not.
Determining the extent of acceptance of these images by Christians is hard to determine, especially for the nineteenth century when public opinion polls did not exist.
What we do know is that in the United States, demonic portrayals of Jews did not lead to the kinds of murderous outrages, pogroms or legal restrictions on Jews that characterized the European Jewish experience. To the contrary, in the United States local and national governments protected Jewish property and lives. Nonetheless, demonic imagery remained a component in nineteenth-century American representations of the Jew. Charges of Jewish treachery, sedition, radicalism, and conspiracies appeared during the early stages of the American republic as one manifestation of the fierce political rivalry between Federalists and Republicans.
In a Federalist broadside accused the Jewish editor of Pittsburgh's Tree of Liberty of being a Jew and therefore "a mother of sedition," and the Federalist newspaper, the Gazette of the United States , identified Jews with treachery and treason. Nehemia Judge, a Baptist elder and Connecticut Republican, accused rabbis of creating a "Jewish covenant" together with "Royalists, aristocrats and high-toned Federalists. Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.
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Mass production , also known as flow production or continuous production , is the production of large amounts of standardized products in a constant flow, including and especially on assembly lines. Together with job production and batch production , it is one of the three main production methods. The New York Times used the term in the title of an article that appeared before publication of the Britannica article. The concepts of mass production are applied to various kinds of products: from fluids and particulates handled in bulk food , fuel , chemicals and mined minerals , to parts and assemblies of parts household appliances and automobiles. Some mass production techniques, such as standardized sizes and production lines, predate the Industrial Revolution by many centuries; however, it was not until the introduction of machine tools and techniques to produce interchangeable parts were developed in the mid 19th century that modern mass production was possible.
American Jewish History Handlin maintained that the prevailing temper of the era was overwhelmingly tolerant toward Jews and that America's image of them exhibited none of the demonic depictions that had pervaded European attitudes toward Jews since medieval times. Handlin reiterated his contentions in Commentary magazine and in his book, Adventure in Freedom.
Mass production , application of the principles of specialization, division of labour , and standardization of parts to the manufacture of goods. Such manufacturing processes attain high rates of output at low unit cost, with lower costs expected as volume rises. Mass production methods are based on two general principles: 1 the division and specialization of human labour and 2 the use of tools, machinery, and other equipment, usually automated, in the production of standard, interchangeable parts and products. The use of modern methods of mass production has brought such improvements in the cost, quality, quantity, and variety of goods available that the largest global population in history is now sustained at the highest general standard of living.
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Она была уверена, что никогда не говорила с шефом о поездке. Она повернулась. Неужели АНБ прослушивает мои телефонные разговоры.
Фонтейну нужно было какое-то прикрытие - на всякий случай, - и он принял необходимые меры. ГЛАВА 113 - Ни в коем случае! - крикнул мужчина с короткой стрижкой, глядя в камеру.
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