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British And American Accent Pdf

british and american accent pdf

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Since Estuary English sounds very different to a "Geordie" accent, you'll get confused very easily. Do sentences generally end on a higher note, the same, or lower? How much variation is there in tone throughout a typical sentence?

English , [5] [6] is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. English is the most widely spoken language in the United States and is the de facto common language used by the federal and state governments, to the extent that all laws and compulsory education presume English as the primary language. English is explicitly given official status by 32 of the 50 state governments. American English varieties include many patterns of pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, and particularly spelling that are unified nationwide but distinct from other English dialects around the world.

British English vs American English: 101+ Differences (+ PDF file)

English , [5] [6] is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. English is the most widely spoken language in the United States and is the de facto common language used by the federal and state governments, to the extent that all laws and compulsory education presume English as the primary language. English is explicitly given official status by 32 of the 50 state governments. American English varieties include many patterns of pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, and particularly spelling that are unified nationwide but distinct from other English dialects around the world.

However, historical and present linguistic evidence does not support the notion of there being one single "mainstream" American accent. The first wave of English-speaking settlers arrived in North America during the 17th century, followed by further migrations in the 18th and 19th centuries. During the 17th century, dialects from many different regions of England existed in every American colony, allowing a process of extensive dialect mixture and leveling in which English varieties across the colonies became more homogeneous compared with varieties in England.

Compared with English as spoken in the United Kingdom , North American English [26] is more homogeneous and any phonologically unremarkable North American accent is known as " General American ".

This section mostly refers to such General American features. Studies on historical usage of English in both the United States and the United Kingdom suggest that spoken American English did not simply deviate away from period British English , but is conservative in some ways, preserving certain features contemporary British English has since lost. Rhoticity is common in most American accents although it is now rare in England because during the 17th-century British colonization, nearly all dialects of English were rhotic, and most North American English simply remained that way.

Scotch-Irish settlers spread from Delaware and Pennsylvania throughout the larger Mid-Atlantic region, the inland regions of both the South and North and throughout the West, American dialect areas that a consistently resisted upper-class non-rhotic influences and that consequently remain rhotic today.

Moreover, American dialects do not participate in H-dropping , an innovative feature that now characterizes perhaps a majority of the regional dialects of England. However, General American is more innovative than the dialects of England or elsewhere in the world in a number of its own ways:. The process of coining new lexical items started as soon as English-speaking British-American colonists began borrowing names for unfamiliar flora, fauna, and topography from the Native American languages.

The languages of the other colonizing nations also added to the American vocabulary; for instance, cookie , from Dutch ; kindergarten from German , [79] levee from French ; and rodeo from Spanish.

Most Mexican Spanish contributions came after the War of , with the opening of the West, like ranch now a common house style. Due to Mexican culinary influence, many Spanish words are incorporated in general use when talking about certain popular dishes: cilantro instead of coriander , queso, tacos, quesadillas, enchiladas, tostadas, fajitas, burritos, and guacamole.

These words usually lack an English equivalent and are found in popular restaurants. New forms of dwelling created new terms lot , waterfront and types of homes like log cabin , adobe in the 18th century; apartment , shanty in the 19th century; project, condominium , townhouse , mobile home in the 20th century; and parts thereof driveway , breezeway, backyard.

Science, urbanization, and democracy have been important factors in bringing about changes in the written and spoken language of the United States. The names of some American inventions remained largely confined to North America elevator , gasoline as did certain automotive terms truck , trunk. New foreign loanwords came with 19th and early 20th century European immigration to the U. Some English words now in general use, such as hijacking, disc jockey , boost, bulldoze and jazz , originated as American slang.

American English has always shown a marked tendency to use words in different parts of speech and nouns are often used as verbs. Compounds coined in the U. Other compound words have been founded based on industrialization and the wave of the automobile: five-passenger car, four-door sedan, two-door sedan, and station-wagon called an estate car in England.

Many compound nouns have the verb-and-preposition combination: stopover, lineup, tryout, spin-off, shootout , holdup, hideout, comeback, makeover , and many more. Noun endings such as -ee retiree , -ery bakery , -ster gangster and -cian beautician are also particularly productive in the U. Among syntactical constructions that arose are outside of, headed for, meet up with, back of, etc.

Americanisms formed by alteration of some existing words include notably pesky, phony, rambunctious, buddy, sundae , skeeter, sashay and kitty-corner. Adjectives that arose in the U. A number of words and meanings that originated in Middle English or Early Modern English and that have been in everyday use in the United States have since disappeared in most varieties of British English; some of these have cognates in Lowland Scots. Terms such as fall "autumn" , faucet "tap" , diaper "nappy"; itself unused in the U.

Fall for example came to denote the season in 16th century England, a contraction of Middle English expressions like "fall of the leaf" and "fall of the year. Fowler , baggage , hit a place , and the adverbs overly and presently "currently".

Some of these, for example, monkey wrench and wastebasket , originated in 19th century Britain. The adjectives mad meaning "angry," smart meaning "intelligent," and sick meaning "ill" are also more frequent in American and Irish English than British English.

Linguist Bert Vaux created a survey, completed in , polling English speakers across the United States about their specific everyday word choices, hoping to identify regionalisms. American English and British English BrE often differ at the levels of phonology, phonetics, vocabulary, and, to a much lesser extent, grammar and orthography.

The first large American dictionary, An American Dictionary of the English Language , known as Webster's Dictionary , was written by Noah Webster in , codifying several of these spellings.

Often, these differences are a matter of relative preferences rather than absolute rules; and most are not stable since the two varieties are constantly influencing each other, [] and American English is not a standardized set of dialects. Differences in orthography are also minor. The main differences are that American English usually uses spellings such as flavor for British flavour , fiber for fibre , defense for defence , analyze for analyse , license for licence , catalog for catalogue and traveling for travelling.

Noah Webster popularized such spellings in America, but he did not invent most of them. Rather, "he chose already existing options on such grounds as simplicity, analogy or etymology. BrE prefers -ise , but also uses -ize on occasion see Oxford spelling. There are a few differences in punctuation rules. British English is more tolerant of run-on sentences , called " comma splices " in American English, and American English requires that periods and commas be placed inside closing quotation marks even in cases in which British rules would place them outside.

American English also favors the double quotation mark "like this" over single 'as here'. Vocabulary differences vary by region. For example, autumn is used more commonly in the United Kingdom, whereas fall is more common in American English. Some other differences include: aerial United Kingdom vs. AmE sometimes favors words that are morphologically more complex, whereas BrE uses clipped forms, such as AmE transportation and BrE transport or where the British form is a back-formation , such as AmE burglarize and BrE burgle from burglar.

However, while individuals usually use one or the other, both forms will be widely understood and mostly used alongside each other within the two systems. While written American English is largely standardized across the country and spoken American English dialects are highly mutually intelligible, there are still several recognizable regional and ethnic accents and lexical distinctions.

The regional sounds of present-day American English are reportedly engaged in a complex phenomenon of "both convergence and divergence": some accents are homogenizing and leveling , while others are diversifying and deviating further away from one another. Having been settled longer than the American West Coast, the East Coast has had more time to develop unique accents, and it currently comprises three or four linguistically significant regions, each of which possesses English varieties both different from each other as well as quite internally diverse: New England , the Mid-Atlantic States including a New York accent as well as a unique Philadelphia—Baltimore accent , and the South.

These sound changes have triggered a series of other vowel shifts in the same region, known by linguists as the " Inland North ". Several other phenomena serve to distinguish regional U. The only traditionally r -dropping or non-rhotic regional U. Non-rhoticity among such speakers is presumed to have arisen from their upper classes' close historical contact with England , imitating London's r -dropping, a feature that has continued to gain prestige throughout England from the late 18th century onwards, [] but which has conversely lost prestige in the U.

New York City and Southern accents are the most prominent regional accents of the country, as well as the most stigmatized in terms of perceived "incorrectness". Western U. Below, ten major American English accents are defined by their particular combinations of certain vowel sounds:. In , William Labov noted that Great Lakes, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and West Coast accents have undergone "vigorous new sound changes" since the mid-nineteenth century onwards, so they "are now more different from each other than they were 50 or years ago", while other accents, like of New York City and Boston, have remained stable in that same time-frame.

Rather than one particular accent, General American is best defined as an umbrella covering an American accent that does not incorporate features associated with some particular region, ethnicity, or socioeconomic group. Typical General American features include rhoticity , the father—bother merger , Mary—marry—merry merger , pre-nasal "short a " tensing , and other particular vowel sounds.

Although no longer region-specific, [] African-American Vernacular English , which remains the native variety of most working- and middle-class African Americans , has a close relationship to Southern dialects and has greatly influenced everyday speech of many Americans, including hip hop culture.

Hispanic and Latino Americans have also developed native-speaker varieties of English. American Indian Englishes have been documented among diverse Indian tribes. The island state of Hawaii , though primarily English-speaking, is also home to a creole language known commonly as Hawaiian Pidgin , and some Hawaii residents speak English with a Pidgin-influenced accent. American English also gave rise to some dialects outside the country, for example, Philippine English , beginning during the American occupation of the Philippines and subsequently the Insular Government of the Philippine Islands ; Thomasites first established a variation of American English in these islands.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Set of dialects of the English language spoken in the United States. English" redirects here. For the political organization, see U. English organization. For other uses, see American English disambiguation. Language family. Writing system. Speech example. For the phonologies of regional American dialects, see North American English regional phonology. T -glottalization and flapping. Optional flapping in certain contexts. Main article: American English vocabulary.

Main article: Comparison of American and British English. Glossary of American terms not widely used in the United Kingdom. Glossary of British terms not widely used in the United States. List of garments having different names in American and British English. Works with different titles in the UK and US. New Mexico.

Rhode Island. Pacific Northwest. New Orleans. Upper Peninsula. United States portal Language portal. Algonquian , Cherokee , and Sioux are among many other official languages in Native-controlled lands throughout the country. French is a de facto , but unofficial, language in Maine and Louisiana , while New Mexico law grants Spanish a special status.

Differences between British and American English

The British actually introduced the language to the Americas when they reached these lands by sea between the 16th and 17th centuries. At that time, spelling had not yet been standardised. It took the writing of the first dictionaries to set in stone how these words appeared. In the UK, the dictionary was compiled by London-based scholars. Meanwhile, in the United States, the lexicographer was a man named Noah Webster. Allegedly, he changed how the words were spelled to make the American version different from the British as a way of showing cultural independence from its mother country.

Bauer, Laurie. An Introduction to International Varieties of English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd, p. Crystal, David. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, 3rd ed. Cambridge: Massachusetts, pp.

General American English or General American abbreviated GA or GenAm is the umbrella accent of American English spoken by a majority of Americans and widely perceived, among Americans, as lacking any distinctly regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics. Standard Canadian English accents are sometimes considered to fall under General American, [13] especially in opposition to the United Kingdom 's Received Pronunciation ; in fact, typical Canadian English accents align with General American in nearly every situation where British and American accents differ. The term "General American" was first disseminated by American English scholar George Philip Krapp , who, in , described it as an American type of speech that was " Western " but "not local in character". Regarded as having General American accents in the earlier 20th century, but not by the middle of the 20th century, are the Mid-Atlantic United States , [6] the Inland Northern United States , [4] and Western Pennsylvania. Wells wrote that two-thirds of the American population spoke with a General American accent. English-language scholar William A. Kretzchmar, Jr.

American English

Even though English is one language, there are some slight differences between English accents and dialects. According to Lingohut, there are different dialects of the English language throughout the world. On top of that, there can also be a difference in spelling, vocaubulary, or grammar etc. The most obvious difference, and also the difference that many learners but also native speakers find important, is the one between American and British English.

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The Differences between American and British Accents

Компания получает электронные сообщения, адресованные на подставное имя, и пересылает их на настоящий адрес клиента. Компания связана обязательством ни при каких условиях не раскрывать подлинное имя или адрес пользователя. - Это не доказательство, - сказал Стратмор.  - Но кажется довольно подозрительным.

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What Are The Differences Between American And British English?

Его массивная фигура буквально нависла над ней, запах одеколона ударил в ноздри. - Я сказала .

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