File Name: soaps and detergents chemistry project .zip
I would like to thank Computer teacher Mr. I would also like to thank computer lab incharge to help us in every possible manner. Besides this, I would like to thank the Principal Mrs.
Guided by: - Mr. Nabakishor Sorokhaibam Submitted by: - Rohan. Patel Roll no. This is to certify that Mr. He worked sincerely under the guidance of faculties and prepared this dissertation.
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No notes for slide. Soaps and detergents chemistry project for class 12th cbse 1. I respect and thanks to Mr. Sanjeev Parashar, principal of N. I wish to thank my parents for their undivided support and interest who inspired me and encouraged me to go my own way, without whom I would be unable to complete my project.
At last but not the least I want to thank my friends who appreciated me for my work and motivated me and finally to God who made all the things possible.
He has been working under my supervision during the session The material involved in his report is entirely his contribution. The results are satisfactory and has been checked by me. This practice is followed even today in many villages. Sometimes plants such as soap nuts are used as cleaning agents. Such plants contain saponins, chemical compounds that produce a soapy lather. These saponins were probably the first detergents used.
Ashes of plants contain potassium carbonate K2 Co3 and sodium carbonate Na2 Co3. The carbonate ion present in both these compounds, reacts with water to form an alkaline solution.
The basic solution has detergent properties. These alkaline plant ashes were used as cleaning agents by the earliest civilizations at least years ago. Europeans were using plant ashes to wash their clothes as recently as years ago.
Sodium carbonate is still sold as washing soda and is being used for cleansing purposes. The discovery of disease causing micro organisms and subsequent public health practices brought about an increased interest in cleanliness by the late eighteenth century.
Soap was in common use by the middle of the nineteenth century. The first written record of soap can be seen in the writings of the Roman pliny the Elder. By the second centaury A.
D, sodium carbonate was heated with time from limestone to produce sodium hydroxide lye. The sodium hydroxide was heated with animal fats or vegetable oils to produce soap. Other societies made soap in much the same manner. The large scale manufacture of soap was not possible until the discovery of practical methods of manufacturing alkalies on a large scale. This did not take place until about Soaps are compounds formed by the reaction of bases with fats, chemically known as fatty acid esters.
The most important fatty acid esters. The three most important fatty acid esters are :- 7. Soap is usually made by the reaction of animal fat or vegetable oil with sodium hydroxide. Vegetable oils, with unsaturated carbon chains, produce soft soaps. Animal fats yield hard soaps. Coconut oils with shorter carbon chains, yield soaps that are more soluble in water.
In modern commercial soap making, the fats and oils are often hydrolysed with super heated steam. The fatty acids then are neutralized to make soap. The process takes place in large cylindrical vessel. The next step in the manufacture of soap is called graining or Saltingout.
This involves the addition of common salt NaCl. During this process the soap becomes insoluble in brine and separates from the solution. The soap may be washed several times with brine to rid it of free alkali.
The molten soap may be run into large frames from which bars may be cut, or it may be run over cold rollers, producing thin sheets which are scraped to form soap chips. The molten soap may also be squirted from a nozzle as a spray into hot air to form powdered soap.
Soft or liquid soaps are made by using potassium hydroxide KOH instead of lye. Potassium soap produces a finer lather. They are used alone or in combination with sodium soaps in liquid soaps, shampoo soaps and shaving creams. Very often certain foreign materials are added to soap as it leaves the reaction kettle.
These fillers may be such inert adulterants as chalk and suphates of sodium, calcium or barium. Another very common filler is talc 8. Sodium silicate is also used. Silicates give firmness to soap and enables it to hold more water. Rosin is also sometimes added to soap especially to laundry soap. Although not a fatty acid, it reacts with sodium hydroxide to form a sodium salt which resembles soap in many respects.
It is soluble and has a high frothing power. The cleansing power of rosin soap is much lower than that of ordinary soap. The presence of rosin in any quantity is undesirable.
If soap contains more than 15 percent rosin, it is known as low grade soap. Permitted dyes are added to soaps to impart than a pleasing colour. The most expensive ingredient of toilet soap is the perfume, which is responsible for its characterstic odour. Although, a both soaps basic function is to clean the body, the advertisements confer exotic qualities to it. Soaps are being advertised as - Beauty soaps - Cinema stars are their brand ambassadors - Health soaps - Sports person used to sponsor them - Complexion soaps - Deodorant soaps - Freshness soaps - Baby soaps and - Herbal or medicinal soaps None of the advertisements speak of what exactly, goes into the making of such soaps.
Can medicated soaps readily cure skin diseases? Are glycerin transparent soaps really gentle to the skin? As mentioned earlier soaps are salts particularly sodium or potassium of long chain fatty acids. These carboxylic acids are derived from fatty oils.
The principal active cleaning agent is sodium carboxylate. The last three are called specialty soaps targeted to specific users. A toilet soap is a cosmetic by law and it must fulfil the requirements of the relevant Indian standard.
M or total fatty matter is a measure for identifying the amount of fatty matter present in soaps.
Soap is made from animal fats and vegetable oils, mixed with a caustic chemical called sodium hydroxide also known as lye. The sodium hydroxide reacts with the oil to make soap. Detergents are generally made from synthetic compounds. How Do Soaps and Detergents Work? Washing clothes, hands or crockery and cutlery needs to remove two kinds of dirt — water-soluble dirt and greasy or oily dirt. Making Things Wet Float a rubber band on the surface of a bowl of water.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleansing properties in dilute solutions. In domestic contexts, the term detergent by itself refers specifically to laundry detergent or dish detergent , as opposed to hand soap or other types of cleaning agents. Detergents are commonly available as powders or concentrated solutions. Detergents, like soaps, work because they are amphiphilic : partly hydrophilic polar and partly hydrophobic non-polar. Their dual nature facilitates the mixture of hydrophobic compounds like oil and grease with water.
AP, CH 6. The largest soap market is bar soap used for personal bathing. Cleansing Agents: Soaps, Detergents and their Types One of the most basic and yet important applications of chemistry in our everyday lives is soap. In fact, all types of cleaning agents, which includes soaps and detergents, are made from chemicals. Let us learn about these cleansing agents in some detail.
Soaps and Detergents are chemical compound or mixture of compounds used as a cleansing agent. Soap is a sodium salt or potassium salt of many combinations of fatty acids having cleansing action in water. Some of the examples are: Sodium stearate, sodium oliate and sodium palmitate formed using stearic acid oleic acid and palmitic acid. The soaps contain fats and oils. The fats and oils required for manufacturing soaps are extracted from the plants and animals.
Carboxylic acids and salts having alkyl chains longer than eight carbons exhibit unusual behavior in water due to the presence of both hydrophilic CO 2 and hydrophobic alkyl regions in the same molecule.
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