File Name: service quality and customer satisfaction notes .zip
P2, S3, T1. Products and Services that meet or exceed customer expectations result in customer satisfaction. Here, the customer receives the value that he or she expects since operations has built quality standards into the product.
An operations view of quality is a common view of the concept of quality. The customer view always compares what they expect with what they actually receive regardless of how operations conceives quality. How do customers arrive at their expectations?
Marketing, especially sales, has a major effect on how the customer views quality. Quality is not an absolute to be determined by operations or manufacturing. The following models explain these basic concepts. What is Quality? Both are necessary, however, the latter is the most important since most tangible hospitality products are becoming. Tangible Product Orientation. Here focus is on the product itself but from another two perspectives Kotler, Bowen, and Makens, :. While this may or may not be a customer focus depending if the customer truly asked what product enhancements they wanted , in reality adding additional features in a hope that they will create customer satisfaction is the approach.
This approach adds to the cost of the product. Justification for these added features must be paid for by additional customer expenditure or the organization gaining a pay-off due to increased customer loyalty. Thus, both the guest at Motel 6 and the guest at the Ritz may conclude after their stay that they received quality rooms. Why can both Motel 6 and Ritz deliver a quality room?
Because the room at the Ritz and Motel 6 are not compared against one another. Product features quality relates to customer expectations. Freedom from Deficiencies. In the example above, the rooms at both the Ritz and Motel 6 must be clean and the beds made-up daily. Seriously, products must work. At a basic level, they must operate as they are supposed to or the customer will determine that the quality is inadequate. Intangible Service Delivery Orientation. Here the focus is on the process of delivering the service.
This involves two basic components: a Technical quality — the means of service delivery and b Functional quality — the how of service delivery. Technical Quality. This includes the systems and infrastructure designed and created to organize delivery of the service. For example: computerized systems, machines technical solutions, and know-how. Functional Quality. The hospitality customer goes through many interactions with employees in the creation and delivery of a hospitality experience. A successful meeting is the result of all functional areas of a hotel being synchronized and focused on creating a beautiful symphony.
Technical quality must be in place to facilitate such coordination and allow the employees to work together. Functional quality includes employee: attitudes, behavior, service mindedness, appearance, accessibility internal relations and customer contacts.
Quality Models. Models help us understand the complexity of service quality. Second, we will discuss an evolutionary form of the Gronroos model, the Gap Analysis Model developed by V. Zeithaml, A. Parasuraman, and L.
Berry in According to Gronroos, service quality studies and subsequent model development has from the beginning beenbased on what customers perceive as quality. In other words, service quality is an outgrowth of the marketing concept; focus on the customer. What is important is what is perceived as quality by the customer and not what designers or operations people feel is good or bad quality.
Customer buying behavior theories have strongly influenced many service quality models. Berry Gronroos, According to the Perceived Service Quality model Figure 1 , the quality of a service, as perceived by the customer, is the result of a comparison between the expectations of the customer and his or her real-life experiences.
If expectations are not met by performance or the actual experience, the perceived quality is low. There are multiple customers in an internship program: students, internship suppliers, and sponsoring entities, for example. Final success is dependent on initial expectations compared to actual performance. Figure 1.
The Perceived Service Quality Model. Source: Gronroos, C. Another widely used model of service quality is known as the five gap model Kotler, Bowen, and Makens, , pp. Knowing what coustomers expect is the first and possibly the most critical step in delivering service quality. Figure 2. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism. Gap 1: Consumer Expectations vs. Management Perceptions. And, this includes understanding which features of the product are necessary to deliver high-quality service.
Gap 1 occurs when this breakdown of understanding occurs. For example, a manager might develop a system to ensure that all guests wait no longer than 15 minutes to check in. If the hotel guest gets upset after a 10 minute wait, then Gap 1 exists. Often, hospitality firms initially survey customers to understand their expectations.
However, over time these customer expectations change change is constantly happening. Ongoing research is essential to stay apprised of the changing customer expectations. Formal research plus informal research managers walking around and talking to hospitality guests, for example is one source of information. The salesforce, especially, for complex group business, is a vital source of changing customer expectations. Service Quality Specifications. Several reasons for Gap 2 are:.
Inadequate commitment to service quality,. Lack of perception of the feasibility of addressing customer expectations. Inadequate task standardization within the hospitality organization. The hospitality industry has been accused of being short-term oriented.
Short-term profits and unwillingness to invest in human resources and technological tools and equipment almost always causes service quality delivery problems. Service Delivery. Several reasons for Gap 3 are:. Employees are not given the tools and working conditions to do the job. Employees are not correctly selected, trained, and motivated. External Communications. When hospitality management represented by marketing and sales executives promises more in its external communications than it can deliver operations then Gap 4 occurs.
External communications includes, but is not limited to, advertising, public relations, pricing messages, and personal selling. Hospitality marketers must ensure that operations can deliver what marketing external communications promises.
Perceived Service. Perceived Service is what the customer believes or perceives that he or she has actually received from the hospitality organization after the service experience. Gap 5 is the Difference between the above. Customer satisfaction and quality is dependent upon this gap being reduced or eliminated. Hospitality management is responsible for managing the absence or presence of this gap.
Summary of Models. The two above quality models significantly affect the service industry. These models offer ways for management to think about the way that they manage service quality. Benefits of Service Quality. The hospitality industry has a reputation for being short-term oriented. When problems arise seem to completely surround the hospitality manager, survival is key. Thus, simply handling the problem and moving to next is the pattern of activity.
Long-term planning and serious thought seems to be often overlooked. The same can be said for effective planning and implementation by circumspect hospitality leadership. Anybody can spend the money to build a beautiful hotel, but not everybody can produce superior service quality. This differentiation leads to competitive advantage as well as other benefits.
SMS, being an almost instantaneous communication medium that connects people, is now a phenomenon that has grown and spread around the globe at an amazing speed. Given the current trend of SMS usage and its potential growth, this paper will provide an insight of the extent to which how service quality and the value perceived by the SMS users have an impact on their extent of the SMS usage in the post SMS adoption phase. Specifically, this article will examine how service quality of the service providers and perceived value affect customer satisfaction and how customer satisfaction will affect their behavioural intention to continue to use SMS which in turn affects the extent of SMS usage in the local context. Using partial-least-squares, an analysis was conducted based on the surveys collected to test for the proposed relationships. The results showed that the tangibles, empathy and assurance dimensions of service quality are antecedents of customer satisfaction and a positive relationship exists between customer satisfaction and customers' behavioural intentions to continue to use SMS.
This paper aims to understand the impact of service quality on corporate image and customer satisfaction. Furthermore, this study also examined the influence of corporate image and customer satisfaction on revisit intention and word of mouth. The mediation effect of corporate image and customer satisfaction on the relationships between service quality—revisit intention and service quality—word of mouth was also examined.
The objective of this research was to analyze the influence of the dimensions that enable the rating of service quality perceived by users of sport and health centers in the satisfaction they experience from the service received. In order to present the working hypothesis, a bibliographic review on the concept and dimensions of perceived service quality was carried out, as well as its relationship with satisfaction. The rating scale sports organizations EPOD was used as a measurement instrument.
A business with high service quality will meet or exceed customer expectations whilst remaining economically competitive. Improvements to service quality may be achieved by improving operational processes; identifying problems quickly and systematically; establishing valid and reliable service performance measures and measuring customer satisfaction and other performance outcomes. From the viewpoint of business administration , service quality is an achievement in customer service. Customers form service expectations from past experiences, word of mouth and marketing communications. For example, in the case of Taj Hotels Resorts and Palaces , wherein TAJ remaining the old world, luxury brand in the five-star category, the umbrella branding was diluting the image of the TAJ brand because although the different hotels such as Vivanta by Taj - the four star category, Gateway in the three star category and Ginger the two star economy brand, were positioned and categorised differently, customers still expected high quality of Taj.
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