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Art, Videogames and Artificial Creativity. Download PDF. This fact carries infinite philosophical and esthetic implications in regards to important changes in social relations as well as the perception of the world around us and of ourselves.
This in turn cannot avoid affecting art, which unashamedly already uses technology and explores the world of possibilities that unfolds.
The new technologies, and Artificial Intelligence in particular, are significantly changing the creative process. Visual arts, musical and literary compositions integrate increasingly more technological elements in their creative and broadcast process. Confronted by the work, the. Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy whose objective is the study of the essence and perception of beauty. Formally, it studies aesthetic reasons and emotions as well as different arts forms.
Nowadays, the idea of a finished and ready to be admired artwork has been substituted by the idea of a completely interactive work, where the receptor of the art also constitutes part of the art, and the development process along with the artwork itself bring together technological elements that aesthetics still trying to grasp. The influence of technology in social-cultural transformations is increasingly evident. Technology, to a large extent, changes the way that we perceive the world, the cognitive, and therefore social practices, the everyday.
We understand that all technology is an extension of the body and mind of the human. That the analysis of human communication must take into consideration the technological means, interpreted as contexts themselves as these tend to transform human perception and as a consequence culture.
These changes have been occurring at such speed that a philosophical analysis becomes urgent, from the Aesthetic, to the impact that the introduction of high technology has on artistic creativity. This article directs itself to this philosophical project; to analyse the three great spheres in which art and technology go hand in hand, generating new paradigms. The first of the above-mentioned spheres is NET. These works are no longer static, but rather in constant connectivity with the world around them or with the spectators themselves, who simultaneously modify it while they observe, creating it.
In his performances it is he himself that interacts with the aid of a third mechanical arm that he is able to move using nerves impulses from his legs and abdomen. The virtual NET. ART generated by a computer, is a direct consequence of new information technologies, in particular of networks, which supplies not only the necessary data support but also the presence of millions of people that enjoy and participate in such art.
There is already a respectable tradition influenced by Dadaism that multiplied and diversified from the 60s, and is, according to some, the precursor from which the new tendencies have flourished.
Nowadays, information networks, are the perfect medium through which to explore the possibilities of these practices, that in general try to erase the border between creator and spectator.
Therefore, it is not uncommon, for NET. Fundamentally, the Internet is a net work articulated through texts. But, in it, the definite and unalterable status of the printed word, gave way to a fragile status, in constant change with an exponential possibility of expansion, dissemination and replication from the readers-writers placed alongside the net.
In this sense, we can understand that the hypertext or hypermedia responds to a reconfiguration of our manner of hearing, seeing and producing knowledge and at the same time that it reconfigures our manner of communication.
This rupture of the lineal narrative, relates to other ruptures in history, for example like that of the author as the omnipotent narrator, giving way, in turn, to fragmented text and to reading as deciphering.
This second sphere, Videogames, has not yet been the focus of much study among artist and academics, despite its significant presence in daily life and the large market that it represents.
To interpret these merely as a pass-time mainly directed to young audiences is to ignore their artistic facet. Many videogames are genuine works of art, something that goes even further than an interactive movie. The way in which an image is treated, the soundtracks chosen, the care taken on scripts and the added component of interaction, all transform Videogames into high-quality artistic works, but nevertheless are not considered as such. The meeting of art and technology is nothing new, we can find it in photography, in cinema, in many emergent arts that generated skeptisism and considerable critism in their beginnings.
In the case of photography, for example, it was said that it would herald the end of Art if you could capture an image using technology there would be no more paintings but not only did this fail to happen but Art evolved in many more rich and various forms.
With videogames we find ourselves in a very similar situation. The critics are many but it is undeniable that the videogame constitute a new form of art.
In the first place; the videogame embraces other existing forms of art. Music: videogames always carry a sound track, from the most simple, 8 bits compositions of the first videogames as in the classic Zelda to the most elaborated of today there are hundreds of videogames with spectacular sound tracks like Faraon de Sierra, Strike Force Commands, recorded by the Bratislava Philharmonic etc.
Visual Arts: images are a very important component in videogames, in some cases could also be real works of art. Broken Sword, the Revolution Software is a videogame based in the classic Point and Click interface over hand made graphics.
But we could also found many more examples of magnificent graphics from the very simple ones but highly artistic never the less as in Rorschach, to the stunning graphics of the super productions like God of War III, FallOut 3. Splinter Cell, Mass Effect etc. Obviously we leaving many behind but these must suffice here. Literature: stands not just for the dialogues or text that may appear in a videogame, but also for the elaborate scripts behind them.
Actually, the first one of the saga was adapted to the big screen, as it happened with Tomb Raider and Resident Evil, although it must be say with mixed results. We must also take into consideration the added difficulty that many videogame scripts must deal with an infinity of alternative endings, all dependant on the actions of the player as in Chrono Trigger and some of the Final Fantasy saga. Videogames do not only integrate different art spheres, and on many occasions in perfect harmony, but also encompass the phenomenon of immersion that we feel while reading a novel or watching a movie and this is exponentially incremented in their case.
On second consideration, and leaving aside the fact that video games can constitute an art form in themselves, we can see how they offer the tools to generate another type of art. Many artists are experimenting with these tools to create their own work.
John Kilma, generated critical social art works using the tools offered by videogames. For example a toy helicopter, similar to the ones that offer rides at fairs, and activated in the same way; by introducing a coin, but in this case, what we see on the 3D screen is American soldiers advancing over a map of Afghanistan, with real images provided by the U S State Department database.
Many more examples can be given, but these will suffice to illustrate the artisticpossibilities of video games as tools. In the third sphere, we located the concept of Artificial Creativity, which constitutes one step further in the communion between art and technology.
While some people generate works of art through technological devices or aided by them, others strive to turn the machines themselves into artists. The results of using these systems in different artistic areas are, to say the least, very surprising. The field of music is one of the most investigated areas of Computational Creativity. In this area, we found NeuroSwing for example, a program capable of generating the backup rhythm section for a jazz musician soloist in real time.
The create on of automatic stories have not been left behind either; for some years now, different but heterogeneous investigative projects have developed stories, albeit varying in length and creativity. Some of them sophisticated enough to make the reader believe that the writer was not a machine but human.
Using algorithms to create poems from words inserted in the program by the user by uniting them to its own database of words to generate poems in the style of the Spanish Golden Era 1. In the Visual Arts we also found multiple programs, among the most complex one is Artista Artificial V0. Obviously, this is only a small example of the many Artificial Creative programs currently in existence, however, there are enough to demonstrate that Artificial Creativity is a reality and its outcome is amazing.
The above mentioned systems are programmed using different methods; from case-based reasoning systems capable of learning from experience to multi-agent systems a group of relative autonomous and intelligent entities cooperating with each other to develop a task or solve a problem or Genetic Algorithms adaptive seek methods based in biological evolution and neuronal nets to which no rule is inculcated because they are capable of learning and recognizing patterns, generalizing from experience.
The development of this type of program, aspires to transcend the classic programming in which the programmer give the orders and the program executes them, to be able to generate intelligent, creative and above all autonomous machines, and to a certain extent, capable of adapting to circumstances, be flexible and learn from experiences.
Of course, as we have stated in this article, the union of art and technology generates great amount of mistrust. In the particular case of machines capable of generating art works, the mistrust and the critiques are larger still.
Not withstanding the fact that they possess a certain amount of autonomy, even if restrictive and the result appears to be largely creative in part. The possibility of Artificial Creativity cannot be dismissed so easily; less so if we take into account that technological evolution is exponentially faster than the natural one.
What we consider a key example to demonstrate the above mentioned, is the musical. In this way, the creations evolve in an autonomous manner, independently of the programmer. Due to this great level of independence and its fast evolution, they showed an aesthetic totally apart from the human one. These types of systems demonstrate the urgency to rethink such concepts as creativity, culture and aesthetics.
Until now, such concepts appeared to be defined solely in relation to humans. Then it would be necessary to redesign those concepts. Being aware of how close we are to the fact that the future artificial creators will have as many aptitudes as humans and we may end up not being able to tell them apart. We have seen in this paper how the inclusion of high-level technologies in the art world has generated an unprecedented revolution.
The works are no longer static, finished entities, nor are the recipients of the artworks any longer passive spectators, but rather part of the work itself, a work that never ends and exists solely through these interactions. From an objective art we have moved to an interactive art, one that is able to better represent the peculiarities of humans and the culture in which they live: that is, a being that is primarily social with a permanent need for interaction , always unfinished, in a constant state of evolution, and one that is living in a continuously changing world.
We have seen this concept demonstrated to perfection in Net. Art, an art form based firmly on the idea of interaction, where the work of art is in itself infinite works of art, since with every new interaction, novel spectator and given moment in time, something original is created, existing only in that interaction with the world and the people.
This idea is also well presented in the case of videogames. A videogame does not exist without its player, by whose interaction life is bestowed on the otherwise inert. He is the one who determines what happens and when. Therefore, the videogame is neither a closed piece of work nor just one game. On the contrary, it is as many works of art as the amount of people who play it.
This concept is taken to the extreme in some examples, such as when the player uses the existing technology of the videogame to invent different ways of playing the game, ways that have not been considered by the designer. An example we are all familiar with is playing Tetris, either by following the objective of the game in which the possible games are still infinite and dependent on the actions of each player , or by using the game to create patterns or drawings with the pieces, by gathering them by colour for example.
Or, for a more up to date example, playing GTA while adhering to all urban and traffic laws. Interaction, therefore, is a fundamental element of NetArt and videogames. But what is its role in the realm of Artificial Creativity? The works of artificial creators are not necessarily interactive, but interaction still constitutes a key point in Artificial Creativity.
The evolution of the machine itself was therefore through interaction. The increasing use of technology in artistic creation, as well as the introduction of Artificial Creativity has begun to blur the frontiers between the natural and the artificial, man and machine.
That is to say, while the artist depends more and more on technology to generate his work, artificial beings are likewise able more and more to communicate and interact, even to be creative. How far can hybrid impulse go? Is there any essential difference between artificial and human beings? The first response that comes to mind is that they are not biological, that they do not possess an organic component.
But how important is this difference? Is it merely circumstantial?
Its collection contains nearly 25, works of art. It is one of the largest museums in the United States. The Calatrava section provides a background on the Spanish architect responsibile for designing the Quadracci Pavilion. Because the health and safety of the Milwaukee community is our highest priority, the Museum is temporarily closed. Learn more. Architect and sculptor Santiago Calatrava was born in Valencia, Spain, in He earned a degree in architecture and then in civil engineering, intrigued by the mathematics behind historic architecture. Early in his career, Calatrava worked as an engineer and began to enter architectural competitions, believing this was his most likely way to secure commissions.
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He is currently an assistant professor of art at University of Massachusetts, Lowell. Out of Character. Solo Exhibition. Solo exhibition, Curated by Yasi Metghalchi. Paris, France, TBA. Solo exhibition, Curated by Roshi Rahnama.
Santiago Calatrava was born in Valencia, Spain, in Architecture santiago-calatrava-City-of-Arts-and-Sciences-valencia-. “Calatrava's.
Art, Videogames and Artificial Creativity. Download PDF. This fact carries infinite philosophical and esthetic implications in regards to important changes in social relations as well as the perception of the world around us and of ourselves. This in turn cannot avoid affecting art, which unashamedly already uses technology and explores the world of possibilities that unfolds.
Santiago Calatrava Valls born 28 July is a Spanish Swiss architect, structural engineer , sculptor and painter, particularly known for his bridges supported by single leaning pylons, and his railway stations, stadiums, and museums, whose sculptural forms often resemble living organisms. His Calatrava surname was an old aristocratic one from medieval times, and was once associated with an order of knights in Spain. In , as the regime of General Francisco Franco relaxed and Spain became more open to the rest of Europe, he went to France as an exchange student. In , after completing secondary school, he went to study at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, but he arrived in the midst of student uprisings and turmoil in Paris, and returned home.
Santiago Calatrava was born in Valencia, Spain, in Architecture and Engineering are the two areas where Santiago Calatrava is known for. He is from Spain and moved to Zurique after finishing his degree in architecture, in There he studied Engineering. During his degree in architecture he and some fellow students published to architecture books about the vernacular architecture of Valencia and Ibiza. Calatrava is also a sculptor and a painter, which reveals his strong artistic vein.
See its nomination here. This is a featured picture on the German language Wikipedia Exzellente Bilder and is considered one of the finest images. This is a featured picture on the English language Wikipedia Featured pictures and is considered one of the finest images. This is a featured picture on the Spanish language Wikipedia Recursos destacados and is considered one of the finest images. If you have an image of similar quality that can be published under a suitable copyright license , be sure to upload it, tag it, and nominate it. View more global usage of this file.
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