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The Journal of Innovation and Knowledge JIK focuses on how we gain knowledge through innovation and how knowledge encourages new forms of innovation.
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Knowledge and innovation transfer. Quality in knowledge and innovation. Empirical evidence demonstrates that motivated employees mean better organizational performance. The objective of this conceptual paper is to articulate the progress that has been made in understanding employee motivation and organizational performance, and to suggest how the theory concerning employee motivation and organizational performance may be advanced.
We acknowledge the existing limitations of theory development and suggest an alternative research approach. Current motivation theory development is based on conventional quantitative analysis e. Since researchers are interested in context and understanding of this social phenomena holistically, they think in terms of combinations and configurations of a set of pertinent variables.
We suggest that researchers take a set-theoretic approach to complement existing conventional quantitative analysis. To advance current thinking, we propose a set-theoretic approach to leverage employee motivation for organizational performance.. Organizations, regardless of industry and size, strive to create a strong and positive relationship with their employees. However, employees have various competing needs that are driven by different motivators.
For example, some employees are motivated by rewards while others focus on achievement or security. Therefore, it is essential for an organization and its managers to understand what really motivates its employees if they intend to maximize organizational performance.
Traditional motivation theories focus on specific elements that motivate employees in pursuit of organizational performance.
For example, motives and needs theory Maslow, states that employees have five level of needs physiological, safety, social, ego, and self-actualizing , while equity and justice theory states that employees strive for equity between themselves and other employees Adams, , However, current research on employee motivation is more cross-disciplinary and includes fields such as neuroscience, biology and psychology.
It seems that current research is aiming to bring together and revolutionize traditional motivation theories into a more comprehensive theory that encompasses the traditional perspectives of management, human resources, organization behavior with new perspectives in neuroscience, biology and psychology.
For example, Lawrence and Nohria use cross-disciplinary perspectives to explain how human nature is the foundation of employee motivation. They argue that it is human nature for employees to possess four drives — the drive to acquire, bond, comprehend and defend — and these drives are the foundation for employee motivation. Their research also specifies organizational levers that fulfill these drives. When these organizational levers are used to fulfill employee drives and motivation, organizational performance is maximized.
The objective of this conceptual paper is two-fold: 1 to articulate the progress made on understanding employee motivation and organizational performance, and 2 to suggest how the theory concerning employee motivation and organizational performance may be advanced by acknowledging the existing limitations of theory development and adopting an alternative research approach for examining this relationship.
Current motivation theory development is based on the template of conventional quantitative analysis e. Although conventional quantitative analysis is considered by most in the discipline to be rigorous and the most scientific of the analytical methods available to social researchers Ragin, , , we argue that these methods are centered on correlations and other measures of association which are symmetric by design and not the only means of understanding employee motivation and organizational performance.
Symmetric analysis assumes that the effects of independent variables are both linear and additive. To estimate the net effect of a given independent variable, researchers offset the impact of other causal conditions by subtracting from the estimate of the effect of each causal variable any explained variation in the dependent variable it shares with other causal variables, see Ragin for more in depth discussion.
The problem with theory development using conventional quantitative analysis is that the assessment of net effects is dependent on model specification, and this requires strong theory and deep substantive knowledge, which is the very objective of research in the first place.
A set-theoretic approach allows for configurational thinking and complex causality, which complements conventional quantitative analysis.
The set-theoretic approach reveals how different conditions combine and whether there is only one combination or several different combinations of conditions causal recipes capable of generating the same outcome Ragin, In the next three sections, we articulate the progress made on understanding employee motivation and organizational performance by reviewing existing employee motivation theories, and the current state of play on work motivation and organizational performance.
In the final three sections, we outline the limitations of existing symmetric models and net-effects thinking in relation to existing motivation performance relationship and suggest the use of a set-theoretic approach for more precise theory. We then propose a set-theoretic approach to leverage employee motivation for organizational performance to advance current thinking. It is hard to argue with empirical evidence that motivated employees mean better organizational performance Nohria et al.
Table 1 summarizes each motivation theory and their principles. We explain these motivation principles below. According to Maslow, employees have five levels of needs Maslow, : physiological, safety, social, ego, and self-actualizing.
Maslow argued that lower level needs are first satisfied before the next higher level need would motivate employees. Motivator or intrinsic factors, such as achievement and recognition, produce job satisfaction whereas hygiene or extrinsic factors, such as pay and job security, produce job dissatisfaction.
Vroom's expectancy theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance and performance will lead to rewards Vroom, Rewards may be either positive or negative. The more positive the reward the more likely the employee will be highly motivated. Adams's equity and justice theory states that employees strive for equity between themselves and other employees Adams, , Inequity comparisons result in a state of dissonance or tension that motivates an employee to engage in behavior designed to relieve tension e.
Many reviews and meta-analyses of the goal-setting literature concluded that there is substantial support for the basic principles of goal-setting theory. Goal setting is most effective when there is feedback showing progress toward the goal. Specific difficult goals consistently lead to better performance than specific easy goals or no goals e. Cognitive evaluation theory Deci, is designed to explain the effects of external consequences on internal motivation. That is, intrinsically motivated employees attribute the cause of their behavior to internal needs and perform behaviors for intrinsic rewards and satisfaction.
However, external elements e. Work design is based on Hackman and Oldham's job characteristic theory, which incorporates five important job characteristics — skill variety, task identity, task significance, feedback, and autonomy — that result in positive employee and organizational outcomes, typically firm performance.
Managers should positively reinforce employee behaviors that lead to positive outcomes e. Managers should negatively reinforce employee behavior that leads to negative outcomes e. Each of these traditional theories informs researchers and managers about the specific elements and organizational levers used to motivate employees.
For example, Maslow's hierarchy of needs specifies pay as one of the levers that motivate employees. Equity theory refers to fairness and justice among employees, while work design job characteristic theory is essential for a motivated high-performing workforce.
Yet they take a modular approach that only explains isolated pieces of the broader holistic relationship between employee motivation and performance. Although many researchers try to reconcile and find common implications from these traditional theories e. In attempts to develop a more comprehensive theory of employee motivation, researchers look to other disciplines for understanding.
The aim of the current research is to bring together and evolve traditional motivation theories by developing a more comprehensive theory that encompasses not only the perspectives of management, human resources, and organization behavior, but also other relevant theories. The researchers survey a financial service giant, a leading IT services firm and Fortune companies and find these four drives led to high levels of engagement, satisfaction, commitment and a reduced intention to quit, and ultimately better corporate performance.
The drive to acquire Nohria et al. These goods include physical items such as food, clothing, housing and money, and also experiences like travel and entertainment. Social status, promotion, getting a corner office or a place on the corporate board also fulfills the drive to acquire. This drive tends to be relative in the sense that employees will always compare what they have with others.
The drive to bond Nohria et al. This bond accounts for the enormous boost in motivation when employees feel proud of belonging to the organization, and for their loss of morale when the organization betrays them. This drive explains why employees become attached to their closest colleagues and find it hard to break out of divisional or functional silos. It also explains the ability for employees to form attachments to larger collectives and care more about the organization than about their local group within it.
The drive to comprehend Nohria et al. Employees want to take reasonable action and respond to organizational events as part of their desire to make a meaningful contribution. These employees are motivated by jobs that challenge them and enable them to grow, learn, innovate and contribute to their organization and their society, but are disheartened by jobs that are boring or lead to a dead end.
Talented employees who feel trapped often leave their jobs to find new challenges elsewhere.
The purpose for this paper is to discover impact of employee motivation on organizational performance and examining the relationship between reward systems on organizational performance. This study was designed based on the literature, connecting the impact of employee motivation on organizational performance and relationship between reward systems on organizational performance. The objectives were constructed based on the literature and the model was tested in perspective of the past studies and literature. The literature and different examinations concluded that employee motivation has positive impact on organizational performance, and also there is relationship between reward systems on organizational performance. The outcome acquired demonstrated that if employees are positively motivated and rewarded, it improves both their viability and productivity definitely to increase organizational performance. Workers are the core of any organization: For any organization to operate smoothly and without any interruption, employee motivation cannot be supplanted with anything else. It is of most extreme significance that the employees of any association not just have a decent motivation; likewise managers and employers should maintain and fix reward system of their organizations.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Said and A. Zaidee and A. Zahari and S. Ali and S.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of motivation on employee performance in public organization: a case of ministry of national development planning Hargeisa, Somaliland. This study guided by the following research questions. This study adopted a descriptive research design.
The relationship between employee motivation and job involvement. S Govender; SB Parumasur. The study aims to assess the current level of, and relationship between, employee motivation and job involvement among permanent and temporary employees in various departments in a financial institution. This cross-sectional study was undertaken on employees who were drawn by using a simple random sampling technique.
The Journal of Innovation and Knowledge JIK focuses on how we gain knowledge through innovation and how knowledge encourages new forms of innovation. Not all innovation leads to knowledge. Only enduring innovation that can be generalized across multiple fields creates theory and knowledge. JIK welcomes papers on innovations that improve the quality of knowledge or that can be used to develop knowledge. Innovation is a broad concept, covering innovation processes, structures, outcomes, antecedents, and behaviors at the organizational level in the private and public sectors as well as at the individual, national, and professional levels. JIK articles explore knowledge-related changes that introduce or encourage innovation to promote best practices within society. JIK provides an outlet for high-quality studies that have undergone double-blind peer review.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of motivation on employee performance in public organization: a case of ministry of national development planning Hargeisa, Somaliland. This study guided by the following research questions. This study adopted a descriptive research design. A census sampling was done and so the 90 employees constituted the sample size. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. The questionnaire was to administer by the researcher.
The aim of this study is to perform a meta-analysis which analyses the individual research findings which pertain to the relationship between self-efficacy, employee motivation and work related performance of the employee. From the results of the study it is observed that self-efficacy theory can be applied for work related performance in terms of motivating different employee related facets as well as organizational pursuits. Thus, it becomes necessary to identify the practical implications of the outcomes related to improving employee self-efficacy in order to motivate them and improve their performance.
Show all documents There are two different forms of motivation that mostly affect performance : the Need or Content theories and Process theories. According to this theory, there exists a positive relationship between precision of goals, level of difficulty and performance.
Download article PDF. Proceedings Journals Books. The purpose of this study was to find out the relationship of motivation, engagement and performance of employees.
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