File Name: magnetic resonance imaging physical principles and sequence design .zip
Principles of magnetic resonance imaging. Recibido el 25 de agosto de ; Aceptado el 8 de diciembre de The concepts of magnetic resonance imaging are reviewed and its application to medical and biological systems is described. The magnetic resonance phenomenon can be described by both classical and quantum mechanical approaches. Magnetic resonance imaging is based on the techniques of nuclear magnetic resonance.
The scanner first aligns the nuclear spins of hydrogen atoms in the patient and starts rotating them in a perfect concert. The nuclei emit maximum-strength electromagnetic waves at the start, but over time the rotating spins get out of synch, simply due to small differences in local magnetic fields.
The unsynchronized spins cause the combined electromagnetic signal to decay with time, a phenomenon called relaxation. A slice is selected applying a gradient in a particular direction X, Y or Z. Magnetic resonance signals are then formed by means of the application of magnetic field gradients along three different directions. Finally, the signals are acquired and Fourier transformed to form a two-dimensional or three-dimensional image.
Important parameters determining the image quality such as signal-to-noise ratio, contrast and resolution are discussed too. A review of the most widely utilised imaging techniques is given including ultra-fast sequences. Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging; pulse sequences; ultra-fast imaging. PACS: Va; Lz; Pc; Cd; Bloch, W. Hansen, and M. Packard, Phys. Bloch, Phys. Purcell, H. Torrey, and R. Pound, Phys. Bloembergen, E. Purcell, and R. Lauterbur, Nature Mansfield, P.
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Overview DOI: The main goal of this chapter is to give a brief introduction in magnetic resonance imaging physics. First a historical introduction about the discovery of the nuclear magnetic resonance effect and its way into daily clinical routine is given. Today, MRI is a widely used imaging technology. Besides its noninvasiveness, its humongous ability to generate different contrasts in soft tissues gives rise to the increasing importance in diagnosis of different diseases. In addition to its ability to provide high-resolution anatomical images it is also possible to directly obtain molecular information. To understand the principles of molecular imaging it is important to get a basic overview about magnetic resonance and imaging principles.
Magnetic resonance imaging MRI is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body. MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields , magnetic field gradients, and radio waves to generate images of the organs in the body. While the hazards of ionizing radiation are now well controlled in most medical contexts [ citation needed ] , an MRI may still be seen as a better choice than a CT scan. MRI is widely used in hospitals and clinics for medical diagnosis and staging and follow-up of disease without exposing the body to radiation. Risks and discomfort may be associated with MRI scans. Compared with CT scans, MRI scans typically take longer and are louder, and they usually need the subject to enter a narrow, confining tube. In addition, people with some medical implants or other non-removable metal inside the body may be unable to undergo an MRI examination safely.
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Magnetic resonance imaging: Physical principles and sequence design E. Mark Haacke, Michael R. Thompson, Ramesh Venkatesan, Robert W.
Principles of magnetic resonance imaging. Recibido el 25 de agosto de ; Aceptado el 8 de diciembre de The concepts of magnetic resonance imaging are reviewed and its application to medical and biological systems is described. The magnetic resonance phenomenon can be described by both classical and quantum mechanical approaches.
Breast MRI pp Cite as. Magnetic resonance imaging MRI combines some of the most interesting principles of physics and some of today's most sophisticated technology to make medical images of amazing clarity and surprisingly high diagnostic accuracy. Twenty-five years ago, when MRI was first introduced to clinical practice, its richness of applications to medical imaging could not have been imagined. It quickly was demonstrated that MRI is useful in diagnosing diseases in the brain and spine. Today, MRI provides not only exquisite anatomic detail and contrast but also provides functional information that can help characterize disease. We now use MRI routinely to assess blood flow, to quantify diffusion within cells, and to localize thought processes in the human brain.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Physical Principles and Sequence. Design (2nd Edition) by RW Brown, Y-C N Cheng, EM Haacke, MR. Thompson http://www1.honeycreekpres.org
Physics for Medical Imaging Applications pp Cite as. An overview of five lectures introducing the basic principles of nuclear magnetic resonance, factors affecting relaxation properties and signal, pulse sequences, equipment for magnetic resonance imaging, image acquisition and reconstruction, together with examples of applications, is provided. References to more detailed sources are included. Unable to display preview.
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