File Name: lead acid battery construction and working .zip
Almost every portable and handheld device consist a battery. The battery is a storage device where energy is stored to provide the power whenever needed. There are different types of batteries available in this modern electronics world, among them Lead Acid battery is commonly used for high power supply.
Grid-level large-scale electrical energy storage GLEES is an essential approach for balancing the supply—demand of electricity generation, distribution, and usage. Compared with conventional energy storage methods, battery technologies are desirable energy storage devices for GLEES due to their easy modularization, rapid response, flexible installation, and short construction cycles. In general, battery energy storage technologies are expected to meet the requirements of GLEES such as peak shaving and load leveling, voltage and frequency regulation, and emergency response, which are highlighted in this perspective.
Grid-level large-scale electrical energy storage GLEES is an essential approach for balancing the supply—demand of electricity generation, distribution, and usage. Compared with conventional energy storage methods, battery technologies are desirable energy storage devices for GLEES due to their easy modularization, rapid response, flexible installation, and short construction cycles.
In general, battery energy storage technologies are expected to meet the requirements of GLEES such as peak shaving and load leveling, voltage and frequency regulation, and emergency response, which are highlighted in this perspective.
Furthermore, several types of battery technologies, including lead—acid, nickel—cadmium, nickel—metal hydride, sodium—sulfur, lithium-ion, and flow batteries, are discussed in detail for the application of GLEES. Moreover, some possible developing directions to facilitate efforts in this area are presented to establish a perspective on battery technology, provide a road map for guiding future studies, and promote the commercial application of batteries for GLEES.
Electricity is one of the most dominant forms of energy that is utilized and has become increasingly required since the electrical age began. However, the instantaneous demand for electrical energy varies considerably daily and seasonally.
Energy storage technologies are of great importance to balance the supply and demand of electricity generation, distribution, and usage. For stationary application, grid-level large-scale electrical energy storage GLEES is an electricity transformation process that converts the energy from a grid-scale power network into a storable form that can be converted back to electrical energy once needed [ 1 ].
As a just-in-time supply system, GLEES plays a fundamental role in avoiding excessive power generation capacity to meet short-term peak electricity need, which is mainly oriented to alleviate the power supply gap of the grid, improve the utilization efficiency of power generation equipment, avoid frequent start and stop of the thermal power unit, reduce the investment in power grid construction, and ensure the safe and stable operation of the power grid system.
So far, several types of energy storage approaches have been investigated and explored, such as secondary battery technologies and supercapacitors, flow batteries, fuel cells, flywheels, compressed air energy storage, thermal energy storage, and pumped hydroelectric power [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ]. Among them, traditional energy storage technologies usually have low energy efficiency, require immense capital investment, and have location-dependent problems.
In comparison, batteries, including secondary batteries and flow batteries, are mature energy storage devices that are known for modularization, rapid response, flexible installation, and short construction cycles [ 10 , 11 ]. Generally, battery energy storage technologies used in GLEES are expected to meet the demands of peak shaving and load leveling, voltage and frequency regulation, and emergency energy storage.
Peak shaving and load leveling refer to processes during which the battery energy storage system stores electrical energy charging process under low electrical load and releases the stored electrical energy discharging process under high electrical load [ 12 ]. Voltage and frequency regulation is related to a process where batteries balance load and power of the grid network by charging and discharging to provide regulation power to the grid with fast response time [ 13 ].
Emergency energy storage is associated with the requirements of backup devices with a millisecond-level quick response and can achieve full power discharge in any state with a wide-scale active power shortage. So far, numerous battery energy storage technologies have been developed to fulfill the demands of various fields based on specific application requirements, such as energy density, specific capacity, discharge performance, power output, response time, cycle life, safety, and cost.
Various excellent review articles focus on the fundamentals and investigation of batteries [ 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 ], which will not be discussed in detail in this perspective. However, few studies focus on the battery energy storage technologies for application in GLEES, which depends more on the corresponding specific application requirements of grid-scale energy storage, including regional power grid peak shaving and load leveling, frequency modulation, voltage regulation, and emergency response.
On the basis of these demands, battery energy storage technologies with rapid response, low cost, long lifetime, high power, and energy efficiency can be distributed throughout the grid and therefore are desirable for utilization in GLEES [ 24 ]. However, some trade-offs often exist among different properties and no existing batteries can meet all the requirements.
In this perspective, several promising battery technologies e. With the technological innovation and successful development of newly developed batteries, the efficiency, energy density, and lifetime of batteries have been improved significantly. However, many challenges exist for each type of batteries, which will be documented in the final section. Possible research directions to overcome the challenges are proposed to promote efforts in this field.
Given that balancing the demand and supply of electricity generation, distribution, and usage is becoming increasingly important, GLEES is critical to avert building excessive energy generation capacity for fulfilling the requirement of short-term peak electrical energy demand. GLEES refers to an electricity transformation process of converting electrical energy from a grid-scale power network into a storable form that can be converted back when needed [ 1 ].
Batteries, including secondary batteries and flow batteries, which are known for their modularization, rapid response, flexible installation, and short construction cycles, are regarded as promising energy storage technologies for GLEES Fig.
In general, the battery technologies utilized in GLEES are expected to meet the following demands of GLEES: 1 peak shaving and load leveling; 2 voltage and frequency regulation; and 3 emergency energy storage. Reproduced with permission [ 26 ]. Copyright , Elsevier. Given that the electrical power demand varies considerably daily, seasonally, and emergently, especially the large peak-to-valley difference between day and night, peak shaving and load leveling are efficient methods to achieve energy saving and emission reduction.
During the peak shaving process, the energy storage devices are charged while the system load of the grid network is low, which will be discharged to remove only the peaks of the load. To achieve peak shaving and load leveling, battery energy storage technology is utilized to cut the peaks and fill the valleys that are charged with the generated energy of the grid during off-peak demand, and then, the electricity is injected into the grid under high electrical energy demand [ 27 ].
This approach will greatly reduce the peak-to-valley difference of electricity consumption without investing in rebuilding power plants and avoid the overall economic decline of the generator set caused by the excessive idle capacity of the system at the valley value.
Reproduced with permission [ 1 ]. Generally, energy and power are strongly reflected in the increase or decrease in the voltage and frequency in the grid. Voltage regulation is generally carried out by reverse voltage regulation, smooth voltage regulation, and constant voltage regulation.
The basic method is to use the reactive power generating device for compensation, including adjusting the generator terminal voltage, changing the transformer ratio, capacitance compensation, and static compensator compensation. Specifically, the frequency of grid system can be adjusted by increasing and decreasing the rotor speed of the rotating machines e. Given the real-time, short-term, random, and unpredictable issues of the grid, battery energy storage technology is a critical guarantee for the safety and reliability of GLEES.
The November 4, , large-scale power outages in Europe caused a load loss of Such incidents around the world have raised awareness of the need to strengthen emergency energy storage systems. Emergency energy storage requires a millisecond-level quick response to achieve full power discharge in any state with a large area of active power shortage.
Battery energy storage, which is known for its fast response time during charging and discharging, is an effective technology for emergency energy storage in GLEES. As mentioned above, GLEES is critical to meet the balance of electricity demand and supply in the grid. To meet requirements, energy storage technologies with rapid response, long cycle life, low cost, and high power and energy efficiency are needed [ 24 ].
Unlike conventional energy storage approaches e. Batteries are currently regarded as a desirable energy storage system in GLEES with high investment benefits and are known for their high commercial potential, fast response time, modularity, flexible installation, and short construction cycles [ 26 ].
With respect to the application in GLEES, several specific demands related to battery construction need to be given attention, including battery power and energy densities, battery voltage, battery capacity, response time, charge—discharge rates, safety issues, and economic efficiency, which are essential to construct an efficient battery system for GLEES [ 26 ].
The lead—acid battery is a battery technology with a long history. Typically, the lead—acid battery consists of lead dioxide PbO 2 , metallic lead Pb , and sulfuric acid solution H 2 SO 4 as the negative electrode, positive electrode, and electrolyte, respectively Fig. The lead—acid battery requires a container that is usually made of thermoplastics e.
The operation of lead—acid secondary battery is based on Eq. Reproduced with permission [ 35 ]. Copyright , Springer. However, the practical application of lead—acid battery for GLEES is limited because of the relatively short lifetime — cycles and its low energy density resulting from the inherent high density of lead.
In addition, a thermal management system is required for lead—acid batteries due to their poor low-temperature performance. For stationary applications, the lead—acid battery is flooded with excess electrolyte to minimize maintenance and the watering interval [ 32 ]. In addition, the VRLA stationary battery utilizes the recombination of oxygen and hydrogen released on the positive and negative plates, respectively, to generate water, thereby eliminating the need to add water in conventional lead—acid batteries [ 25 ].
In general, Ni—Cd battery is composed of a nickel hydroxide positive electrode, a cadmium hydroxide negative electrode, an alkaline electrolyte, and a separator.
An Ni—Cd battery is usually assembled with a plastic or metal case that contains a sealing plate equipped with a self-sealing safety valve. The plastic containers for Ni—Cd battery are made from polypropylene, polystyrene, and flame-retarded plastics, which are preferable to the metal-based counterpart and have relatively high corrosion resistance, low weight, and ease of visual control of the electrolyte level [ 32 ].
The charge and discharge operation mechanism of Ni—Cd batteries can be presented as the following Eq. Ni—MH batteries comprise metal hydride anodes e. A separator is usually utilized as the insulator between anodes and cathodes, functions as the medium for absorbing electrolytes, and is composed of synthetic nonwoven material.
The battery chemistry of Ni—MH batteries is shown in Fig. Reproduced with permission [ 37 ]. As for Ni—MH batteries, both the anode and cathode are porous structures with a large surface area, thus providing low internal resistance and high-rate performance capability.
The cathode is generally fabricated by impregnating or pasting nickel compounds into the foam nickel or a highly porous sintered substrate, and the anode is a hydrogen-storage-alloy-coated perforated nickel foil or grid. Considering the insulator nature of S materials, S cathodes are generally filled in a conductive porous carbon or graphite felt as current collectors. The casing for Na—S batteries is usually made of stainless steel.
The charge and discharge battery chemistry of Na—S batteries is presented in Eq. Reproduced with permission [ 38 ]. As a result, the Na—S battery is characterized by a relatively high specific energy and power density, high current and rate capacity, high self-discharge resistance, high electrical efficiency, low vibration, low noise, and high environment friendliness.
However, the major drawback of Na—S batteries is the requirement of a heat source and the highly exothermic reaction between molten Na and S, thereby increasing the risk of fire. Since the first commercial Li-ion batteries were produced in by Sony, Li-ion batteries have become one of the most important battery technologies, leading the market in the field of energy storage. Generally, Li-ion batteries comprise positive and negative electrodes and Li-ion-conducting electrolytes Fig.
Typically, positive electrode materials are metal oxides with layered or tunneled structures e. The negative electrode is usually a graphitic carbon on a copper current collector. Liquid electrolytes are usually composed of lithium salts e.
The semisolid electrolyte is typically a polymer electrolyte, which is an ion-conducting material composed of lithium salts and high-molecular-weight polymer matrices e.
The solid-state electrolyte refers to the solid-state ion conductor consisting of mobile ions and metal and nonmetal ions that typically form polyhedra with ligands that create the skeleton of the crystal structure. Li-ion conductors based on various crystal structures such as lithium superionic conductor, sodium superionic conductor, argyrodites, garnets, lithium nitrides, lithium hydrides, perovskites, and lithium halides have been extensively investigated [ 39 ].
Reproduced with permission [ 10 ]. Since the s, flow batteries have been explored for the development of electric utility storage applications in the USA and Japan. Flow batteries store energy in electrolyte solutions and contain two redox couples e. Unlike traditional battery technologies, the electrode and electrolyte of flow batteries are separated. In addition, the energy capacity of the flow battery depends on the size of the electrolyte tanks, and its battery power depends on the size of the battery.
Generally, three types of flow batteries have been developed in GLEES, namely zinc—bromine flow batteries, vanadium redox batteries, and polysulfide bromide batteries.
Reproduced with permission [ 40 ]. However, commercial development of this battery is hindered by the dendrite formation tendency of zinc, poor cycle life, low energy efficiency, and high solubility of bromine in the aqueous zinc bromide electrolyte.
The battery chemistry of vanadium redox batteries is based on Eq. Furthermore, vanadium redox batteries are capable of deep discharge and are suitable for stationary applications. Polysulfide bromide batteries are another important flow battery technology that operates on the basis of the redox reaction between sodium polysulfides and the sodium polysulfide separated by a cation-selective membrane e.
Moreover, the practical application of polysulfide bromide batteries still face several challenges, such as the high cost of carbon felt, the complicated preparation method of sodium polysulfide, and cross-contamination during long-term battery operation. GLEES, which is the process of converting electricity from a grid-scale power network to a storable form for conversion back to electricity when needed, plays an essential role in the supply—demand balance of electricity generation, distribution, and usage.
To date, several energy storage approaches have been developed, such as secondary battery technologies and supercapacitors, flow batteries, flywheels, compressed air energy storage, thermal energy storage, and pumped hydroelectric power.
All lead acid batteries consist of flat lead plates immersed in a pool of electrolyte. Regular water addition is required for most types of lead acid batteries although low-maintenance types come with excess electrolyte calculated to compensate for water loss during a normal lifetime. Lead acid batteries used in the RV and Marine Industries usually consist of two 6-volt batteries in series, or a single volt battery. These batteries are constructed of several single cells connected in series each cell produces approximately 2. A six-volt battery has three single cells, which when fully charged produce an output voltage of 6.
A lead storage battery, also known as a lead-acid battery, is the oldest type of rechargeable battery and one of the most common energy storage devices. Most people are accustomed to using them in vehicles, where they have the ability to provide high currents for cranking power. Although the batteries are reliable, they have a limited life, are heavy to ship, and contain toxic materials that require specific removal methods at the end of their useful life. Lead-acid batteries have moderate power density and good response time. Depending on the power conversion technology incorporated, batteries can go from accepting energy to supplying energy instantaneously. Lead-acid batteries are affected by temperature and must be maintained in order to achieve maximum life expectancy. The cells initially had low capacity.
The plates in lead acid battery are constructed in a different way and all are made up of similar types of the grid which is constructed of active components and lead.
Lead Acid Battery — The type of battery which uses lead peroxide and sponge lead for the conversion of the chemical energy into electrical energy, such type of the electric battery is called a lead acid battery.
Я же его личный помощник. - Дай мне. Бринкерхофф не верил своим ушам. - Мидж, я ни под каким видом не пущу тебя в кабинет директора. - Ты должен это сделать! - потребовала она и, отвернувшись, начала что-то печатать на клавиатуре Большого Брата.
Алчущие хакеры прорывались со всех уголков мира. Их количество удваивалось каждую минуту. Еще немного, и любой обладатель компьютера - иностранные шпионы, радикалы, террористы - получит доступ в хранилище секретной информации американского правительства. Пока техники тщетно старались отключить электропитание, собравшиеся на подиуме пытались понять расшифрованный текст. Дэвид Беккер и два оперативных агента тоже пробовали сделать это, сидя в мини-автобусе в Севилье.
Похожий на карлика бармен тотчас положил перед ним салфетку. - Que bebe usted. Чего-нибудь выпьете.
Если честно… - Он вытянул шею и подвигал головой влево и вправо. - Мне не помешала бы еще одна подушка, если вас это не затруднит. - Нисколько. - Беккер взял подушку с соседней койки и помог Клушару устроиться поудобнее. Старик умиротворенно вздохнул.
Стратмор нахмурился: - В этом вся проблема.
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