File Name: clouds and storms ludlum .zip
Cumulus clouds are clouds which have flat bases and are often described as "puffy", "cotton-like" or "fluffy" in appearance. Their name derives from the Latin cumulo- , meaning heap or pile. Cumulus clouds may appear by themselves, in lines, or in clusters. Cumulus clouds are often precursors of other types of clouds, such as cumulonimbus , when influenced by weather factors such as instability , moisture, and temperature gradient.
Normally, cumulus clouds produce little or no precipitation, but they can grow into the precipitation-bearing congestus or cumulonimbus clouds. Cumulus clouds can be formed from water vapour, supercooled water droplets, or ice crystals, depending upon the ambient temperature. They come in many distinct subforms and generally cool the earth by reflecting the incoming solar radiation.
Cumulus clouds are part of the larger category of free-convective cumuliform clouds, which include cumulonimbus clouds. The latter genus-type is sometimes categorized separately as cumulonimbiform due to its more complex structure that often includes a cirriform or anvil top.
Cumulus clouds form via atmospheric convection as air warmed by the surface begins to rise. As the air rises, the temperature drops following the lapse rate , causing the relative humidity RH to rise. If convection reaches a certain level the RH reaches one hundred percent, and the "wet-adiabatic" phase begins. In this phase, water vapor condenses on various nuclei present in the air, forming the cumulus cloud.
This creates the characteristic flat-bottomed puffy shape associated with cumulus clouds. The first stage occurs after the droplets coalesce onto the various nuclei. Langmuir writes that surface tension in the water droplets provides a slightly higher pressure on the droplet, raising the vapor pressure by a small amount. The increased pressure results in those droplets evaporating and the resulting water vapor condensing on the larger droplets.
Langmuir was able to develop a formula [note 1] which predicted that the droplet radius would grow unboundedly within a discrete time period. The liquid water density within a cumulus cloud has been found to change with height above the cloud base rather than being approximately constant throughout the cloud. As altitude increased, the concentration rapidly increased to the maximum concentration near the middle of the cloud.
The maximum concentration was found to be anything up to 1. The concentration slowly dropped off as altitude increased to the height of the top of the cloud, where it immediately dropped to zero again. These cloud streets cover vast areas and may be broken or continuous. They form when wind shear causes horizontal circulation in the atmosphere, producing the long, tubular cloud streets. The height at which the cloud forms depends on the amount of moisture in the thermal that forms the cloud.
Humid air will generally result in a lower cloud base. Cumulus clouds can be composed of ice crystals , water droplets, supercooled water droplets, or a mixture of them. This data was taken from growing isolated cumulus clouds that were not precipitating. Although smaller droplets may have been present, the measurements were not sensitive enough to detect them. The droplet size distribution was slightly bimodal in nature, with peaks at the small and large droplet sizes and a slight trough in the intermediate size range.
The skew was roughly neutral. These can occur when winds tear the cloud and incorporate the environmental air or when strong downdrafts evaporate the water. Cumulus clouds come in four distinct species, cumulus humilis , mediocris , congestus , and fractus. These species may be arranged into the variety, cumulus radiatus ; and may be accompanied by up to seven supplementary features, cumulus pileus , velum , virga , praecipitatio , arcus , pannus , and tuba.
The species Cumulus fractus is ragged in appearance and can form in clear air as a precursor to cumulus humilis and larger cumulus species-types; or it can form in precipitation as the supplementary feature pannus also called scud which can also include stratus fractus of bad weather. Cumulus mediocris clouds look similar, except that they have some vertical development.
Cumulus congestus clouds have a cauliflower-like structure and tower high into the atmosphere, hence their alternate name "towering cumulus". Cumulus supplementary features are most commonly seen with the species congestus. Cumulus virga clouds are cumulus clouds producing virga precipitation that evaporates while aloft , and cumulus praecipitatio produce precipitation that reaches the Earth's surface.
Cumulus arcus clouds have a gust front ,  and cumulus tuba clouds have funnel clouds or tornadoes. Cumulus humilis clouds usually indicate fair weather. They can produce precipitation. The researchers speculated that this might even produce a positive feedback, where the increasing upper atmospheric moisture further warms the earth, resulting in an increasing number of cumulus congestus clouds carrying more moisture into the upper atmosphere.
Cumulus clouds are a genus of free-convective low-level cloud along with the related limited-convective cloud stratocumulus. Stratus clouds are also low-level. In the middle level are the alto- clouds, which consist of the limited-convective stratocumuliform cloud altocumulus and the stratiform cloud altostratus. The high-level cloud, cirrocumulus, is a stratocumuliform cloud of limited convection. The other clouds in this level are cirrus and cirrostratus.
Cirrocumulus clouds form in patches  and cannot cast shadows. They commonly appear in regular, rippling patterns  or in rows of clouds with clear areas between. They are not solid, but instead tend to have stepped funnels coming in from the ends.
Towards the top of the cloud, these crystals have a tendency to clump together. The cloud then dissipates into cirrus. However, the liquid water concentration was almost always significantly greater than the concentration of ice crystals, and the maximum concentration of liquid water tended to be at the top of the cloud while the ice concentrated itself at the bottom.
A stratocumulus cloud is another type of stratocumuliform cloud. Like cumulus clouds, they form at low levels  and via convection. However, unlike cumulus clouds, their growth is almost completely retarded by a strong inversion. As a result, they flatten out like stratus clouds, giving them a layered appearance.
These clouds are extremely common, covering on average around twenty-three percent of the earth's oceans and twelve percent of the earth's continents.
They are less common in tropical areas and commonly form after cold fronts. Additionally, stratocumulus clouds reflect a large amount of the incoming sunlight, producing a net cooling effect. Cumulonimbus clouds are the final form of growing cumulus clouds.
Cumulonimbus clouds, commonly called thunderheads, can produce high winds, torrential rain, lightning, gust fronts, waterspouts , funnel clouds , and tornadoes. They commonly have anvil clouds. A short-lived horseshoe cloud may occur when a horseshoe vortex deforms a cumulus cloud.
Some cumuliform and stratocumuliform clouds have been discovered on most other planets in the solar system. On Mars , the Viking Orbiter detected cirrocumulus and stratocumulus clouds forming via convection primarily near the polar icecaps. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Genus of clouds, low-level cloud. For other uses, see Cumulus disambiguation.
Small cumulus humilis clouds that can have noticeable vertical development and clearly defined edges. Play media. Main article: Cirrocumulus cloud. Main article: Altocumulus cloud. Main article: Stratocumulus cloud. Main article: Cumulonimbus cloud. Main article: Horseshoe cloud. Weather portal. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 18 October Retrieved Resources in Atmospheric Sciences.
University of Wyoming College of Atmospheric Sciences. Retrieved 11 February Retrieved 16 October National Weather Service. Retrieved 21 July World Meteorological Organization. Oxford University Press. The Weather Channel. Archived from the original on 17 October New York: Time Inc.
International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 12 July National Science Foundation. Retrieved 23 October Universities Space Research Association. The Science Corner.
logy or cloud physics the name of Tor Bergeron belongs to those By F. H. LUDLAM, Imperial College, London introduced into the study of weather pheno-.
Cumulus clouds are clouds which have flat bases and are often described as "puffy", "cotton-like" or "fluffy" in appearance. Their name derives from the Latin cumulo- , meaning heap or pile. Cumulus clouds may appear by themselves, in lines, or in clusters. Cumulus clouds are often precursors of other types of clouds, such as cumulonimbus , when influenced by weather factors such as instability , moisture, and temperature gradient. Normally, cumulus clouds produce little or no precipitation, but they can grow into the precipitation-bearing congestus or cumulonimbus clouds.
Cumulonimbus from Latin cumulus , "heaped" and nimbus , "rainstorm" is a dense, towering vertical cloud ,  forming from water vapor carried by powerful upward air currents. If observed during a storm, these clouds may be referred to as thunderheads. Cumulonimbus can form alone, in clusters, or along cold front squall lines. These clouds are capable of producing lightning and other dangerous severe weather , such as tornadoes and hailstones.
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