File Name: smart clothes and wearable technology .zip
Wearable technology has a variety of applications which grows as the field itself expands. It appears prominently in consumer electronics with the popularization of the smartwatch and activity tracker.
Apart from commercial uses, wearable technology is being incorporated into navigation systems, advanced textiles, and healthcare. The pre-history of wearable technology starts with the watch, which was worn by people to tell time. In the German inventor Peter Henlein created small watches that were worn as necklaces.
A century later, men began to carry their watches in their pockets as the waistcoat became a fashionable item, which led to the creation of pocket watches. Wristwatches were also created in the late s but were worn mostly by women as bracelets. Over time, the watch becomes smaller and more precise. In , the aviator Alberto Santos-Dumont pioneered the use of the wristwatch as it allowed him to have his hands unoccupied when piloting.
This proved that the wrist is a convenient place to wear a watch which led people to start using wristwatches. Modern wearable technology is related to both ubiquitous computing and the history and development of wearable computers. Wearables make technology pervasive by incorporating it into daily life.
Through the history and development of wearable computing, pioneers have attempted to enhance or extend the functionality of clothing, or to create wearables as accessories able to provide users with sousveillance — the recording of activity typically by way of small wearable or portable personal technologies. Tracking information like movement, steps, and heart rate is part of the quantified self movement. The origins of modern wearable technology are influenced by both of these responses to the vision of ubiquitous computing.
An even earlier wearable technology was the hearing aid. In , Ilya Fridman incorporated a hidden Bluetooth microphone into a pair of earrings. Fitbit released its first step counter in late ; Fitbit products have primarily focused upon activity tracking.
In the following years, smartwatches began to be released by major electronics companies as well as by new start-ups. One of the first offerings was the Samsung Galaxy Gear in September Apple followed more than a year later with the Apple Watch in April In , Oculus launched a Kickstarter campaign to start sales of the first consumer virtual reality headset.
From to , Rosalind Picard and her students, Steve Mann and Jennifer Healey, at the MIT Media Lab designed, built, and demonstrated data collection and decision making from "Smart Clothes" that monitored continuous physiological data from the wearer. These "smart clothes", "smart underwear", "smart shoes", and smart jewellery collected data that related to affective state and contained or controlled physiological sensors and environmental sensors like cameras and other devices.
In , Sony Ericsson teamed up with the London College of Fashion for a contest to design digital clothing. The winner was a cocktail dress with Bluetooth technology making it light up when a call is received. The Tyndall National Institute  in Ireland developed a "remote non-intrusive patient monitoring" platform which was used to evaluate the quality of the data generated by the patient sensors and how the end users may adopt to the technology.
In , graduate students from the Tisch School of Arts in New York designed a hoodie that sent pre-programmed text messages triggered by gesture movements. Around the same time, prototypes for digital eyewear with heads up display HUD began to appear.
The US military employs headgear with displays for soldiers using a technology called holographic optics. In , Google started developing prototypes  of its optical head-mounted display Google Glass , which went into customer beta in March In the consumer space, sales of smart wristbands aka activity trackers such as the Jawbone UP and Fitbit Flex started accelerating in In professional sports, wearable technology has applications in monitoring and real-time feedback for athletes.
This day marked the official launch of Google Glass, a device intended to deliver rich text and notifications via a heads-up display worn as eyeglasses. The device also had a 5 MP camera and recorded video at p. The company also launched the Google Glass companion app, MyGlass. While optical head-mounted display technology remains a niche, two popular types of wearable devices have taken off: smartwatches and activity trackers.
At the end of , Pebble announced it had sold a million devices. In March , Motorola unveiled the Moto smartwatch powered by Android Wear , a modified version of the mobile operating system Android designed specifically for smartwatches and other wearables.
Nevertheless, wearable technologies are still suffering from limited battery capacity. Another field of application of wearable technology is monitoring systems for assisted living and eldercare. Wearable sensors have a huge potential in generating big data , with a great applicability to biomedicine and ambient assisted living. Wearable technology can also collect biometric data such as heart rate ECG and HRV , brainwave EEG , and muscle bio-signals EMG from the human body to provide valuable information in the field of health care and wellness.
Another increasingly popular wearable technology involves virtual reality. VR headsets have been made by a range of manufacturers for computers, consoles, and mobile devices. Recently Google released their headset, the Google Daydream. In July a smart technology footwear was introduced in Hyderabad , India. The shoe insoles are connected to a smartphone application that uses Google Maps , and vibrate to tell users when and where to turn to reach their destination.
In addition to commercial applications, wearable technology is being researched and developed for a multitude of uses. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is one of the many research institutions developing and testing technologies in this field.
For example, research is being done to improve haptic technology  for its integration into next-generation wearables. Another project focuses on using wearable technology to assist the visually impaired in navigating their surroundings.
As wearable technology continues to grow, it has begun to expand into other fields. The integration of wearables into healthcare has been a focus of research and development for various institutions. Wearables continue to evolve, moving beyond devices and exploring new frontiers such as smart fabrics.
Applications involve using a fabric to perform a function such as integrating a QR code into the textile,  or performance apparel that increases airflow during exercise . Wearable technology is often used to monitor a user's health. Given that such a device is in close contact with the user, it can easily collect data. It started as soon as where first wireless ECG was invented. In the last decades, it shows rapid growth in research of textile-based, tattoo, patch, and contact lenses.
These functions are often bundled together in a single unit, like an activity tracker or a smartwatch like the Apple Watch Series 2 or Samsung Galaxy Gear Sport.
Devices like these are used for physical training and monitoring overall physical health, as well as alerting to serious medical conditions such as seizures e.
Empatica Embrace. While wearables can collect data in aggregate form, most of them are limited in their ability to analyze or make conclusions based on this data; thus, most are used primarily for general health information. An exception is seizure-alerting wearables, which continuously analyze the wearer's data and make a decision about calling for help; the data collected can then provide doctors with objective evidence that they may find useful in diagnoses.
Wearables can account for individual differences, although most just collect data and apply one-size-fits-all algorithms. Today, there is a growing interest to use wearables not only for individual self-tracking, but also within corporate health and wellness programs.
Given that wearables create a massive data trail which employers could repurpose for objectives other than health, more and more research has begun to study the dark side of wearables. Epidermal electronics is an emerging field of wearable technology, termed for their properties and behaviors comparable to those of the epidermis, or outermost layer of the skin.
The significance of epidermal electronics involves their mechanical properties, which resemble those of skin. The skin can be modeled as bilayer, composed of an epidermis having Young's Modulus E of kPa and thickness of 0. With this inherent ability to take the shape of skin, epidermal electronics can accurately acquire data without altering the natural motion or behavior of skin.
Essentially, these devices are "mechanically invisible" to the wearer. Epidermal electronics devices may adhere to the skin via van der Waals forces or elastomeric substrates. Along with van der Waals forces, the low values of E and thickness are effective in maximizing adhesion because they prevent deformation-induced detachment due to tension or compression. Wearables have expanded into the entertainment space by creating new ways to experience digital media.
Virtual reality headsets and augmented reality glasses have come to exemplify wearables in entertainment. The influence of these virtual reality headsets and augmented reality glasses are seen mostly in the gaming industry during the initial days, but are now used in the fields of medicine and education.
Virtual reality headsets such as the Oculus Rift , HTC Vive , and Google Daydream View aim to create a more immersive media experience by either simulating a first-person experience or displaying the media in the user's full field of vision. Television, films, video games, and educational simulators have been developed for these devices to be used by working professionals and consumers.
Augmented reality glasses are currently in development by several corporations. The device explores using digital holography, or holograms, to give the user a first hand experience of Augmented Reality.
Wearable technology has also expanded from small pieces of technology on the wrist to apparel all over the body. There is a shoe made by the company shiftwear that uses a smartphone application to periodically change the design display on the shoe. The application was up by and a prototype for the shoes was created in Another example of this can be seen with Atari's headphone speakers.
Atari and Audiowear are developing a face cap with built in speakers. The cap will feature speakers built into the underside of the brim, and will have Bluetooth capabilities. This gives the user an augmented sound while they commute so they will be able to hear their surroundings while listening to their favorite music.
Many other devices can be considered entertainment wearables and need only be devices worn by the user to experience media. The gaming industry has always incorporated new technology. The first technology used for electronic gaming was a controller for Pong. The way users game has continuously evolved through each decade. Currently, the two most common forms of gaming is either using a controller for video game consoles or a mouse and keyboard for PC games.
In , virtual reality headsets were reintroduced to the public. VR headsets were first conceptualized in the s and officially created in the s. He created a device known as the Sensorama in The gaming space has offbeat inventions. In Sony debuted its first portable, connectable virtual reality headset codenamed Project Morpheus.
Wearable technology has a variety of applications which grows as the field itself expands. It appears prominently in consumer electronics with the popularization of the smartwatch and activity tracker. Apart from commercial uses, wearable technology is being incorporated into navigation systems, advanced textiles, and healthcare. The pre-history of wearable technology starts with the watch, which was worn by people to tell time. In the German inventor Peter Henlein created small watches that were worn as necklaces. A century later, men began to carry their watches in their pockets as the waistcoat became a fashionable item, which led to the creation of pocket watches.
of wearable technology and smart clothing, and barriers to smart clothing adoption. 31 honeycreekpres.org_Factbook_pdf.
Part 1 The design of smart clothing and wearable technology: The emergence of wearable computing; Types of smart clothes and wearable technology; End-user based design of innovative smart clothing; The garment design process for smart clothing: From fibre selection through to product launch; Designing smart clothing for the body. Part 2 Materials and technologies for smart clothing: The influence of knitwear on smart wearables; Woven structures and their impact on the function and performance of smart clothing; Nonwovens in smart clothes and wearable technologies; Sensors and computing systems in smart clothing; The application of communication technologies in smart clothing; Power supply sources for smart textiles. Part 3 Production technologies for smart clothing: Garment construction: cutting and placing of materials; Developments in fabric joining for smart clothing; Digital embroidery techniques for smart clothing; Developments in digital print technology for smart textiles; Environmental and waste issues concerning the production of smart clothes and wearable technology.
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