File Name: knowledge and attitude regarding obstetrics ultrasound among pregnant women research proposal .zip
Ultrasound has become a routine part of care for pregnant women in Uganda, being one of a range of techniques used in screening. However, it differs from most others because it allows women to view their babies. Routine obstetric sonography is now globally recognized as one of the ways through which maternal mortality can be reduced.
This study aimed at finding out the knowledge, attitudes and practices of pregnant women towards prenatal sonography at Naguru Health Centre, Uganda. Exploratory -descriptive study using interviewer-administered questionnaires.
Thematic analysis was employed for qualitative data and bivariate, multivariate and logistic regression analysis was used for quantitative data. Three themes emerged; Knowledge, Attitude and Practices. All women expressed concern that obstetric sonography could lead to cancer. Obstetric sonography is highly appreciated as being vital for antenatal care. However, there is need for mothers and health care providers to be well informed about the safety and specific purposes of obstetric sonography and what it can and cannot achieve.
There has been increased medicalization of pregnancy globally due to advances in technology in the field of healthcare and most especially in obstetric care [ 1 ]. The predominance of this perception is rooted in a number of trends extending over a period of time. In support of these trends, policy makers cite the reduction in maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality as justification for all the changes made in obstetrical care [ 2 , 3 ].
Routine obstetric ultrasound has been one of the most important advances in antenatal care worldwide [ 2 — 5 ]. However, it has been reported that innovative medical technologies like obstetric sonography have the potential to raise social, ethical and economic dilemmas for both health workers and the recipients of health services [ 5 ].
Uganda is a land locked country in Eastern Africa with a total land area of square kilometers. It has a total population of In Uganda, health care delivery has been decentralized from the top to the bottom with the aim of bringing services nearer to the people. In most of these health care facilities including private health care facilities, routine obstetric sonography has been fully embraced.
While obstetric sonography has proven to be beneficial in situations where it is indicated, the role of it being routine remains contentious [ 8 , 9 ]. There is a wealth of literature about the psychosocial effects and therapeutic benefits of prenatal sonography.
Bashour et al and Georgsson et al reported that the ultrasound experience will reassure the pregnant woman about fetal well-being, encourage women to abandon practices harmful to the fetus, facilitate early bonding and will be enjoyable and interesting [ 9 , 10 ]. Indeed many women have got many expectations from routine scans like knowing the fetal sex, status of the baby and expected date of delivery [ 11 , 12 ].
Whynes further reports that, most women now accept the scan uncritically because of the enormous expectations they have, but most especially viewing their babies live on the screen and knowing the fetal sex [ 13 ]. Nigenda et al concurred with the aforementioned views when they reported that pregnant women attending antenatal care in developing countries have got several expectations when they are sent for ultrasound, most which are about knowing the sex of the fetus, viability, expected due date and the reassurance that the baby is fine [ 14 ].
Conversely, Tautz et al advise that sometimes pregnant women have got over expectations that may not be met during scanning which creates a different feeling for them after the scan [ 8 ]. This is mostly encountered with women who have some knowledge about obstetric sonography.
It has been reported that women with higher levels of formal education are more likely to have many expectations as well as ask many questions compared to women with low levels of formal education [ 15 ].
The health care providers have also contributed in a way to this obsession. Gammeltoft and Nguyen report that health workers themselves have declared obstetric ultrasound an indispensable part of modern antenatal care and therefore recommend it. This has created a dramatic overuse of this technology mainly because of its over commercialization for monetary gains in both public and private health facilities. For example in a survey carried out in Viet Nam, women had an average of 6.
Gammeltoft and Nguyen conclude by suggesting the need for guidelines for the appropriate use of obstetric ultrasound in antenatal care.
Similar findings and suggestions were reported by Bashour et al in their study with Syrian women [ 9 ]. It has been reported that majority of women especially in developed countries no longer have fears regarding the safety of ultrasound, and so go for it uncritically [ 16 ]. The paucity of literature in the Ugandan situation exploring this issue warrants attention. By listening to women talk, health workers and policy makers may have an enhanced and broad understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions these women have about obstetric ultrasound.
The purpose of the present study was to explore knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of pregnant women about obstetric scanning, whose findings are documented below. Naguru Health Centre offers out-patient services, maternity, immunization, general theatre services with a capacity of about 25 beds and 35 full time staff. It was an exploratory study in which semi-structured key-informant individual interviews were conducted. Individual interviews help to collect insightful descriptions from participants [ 17 , 18 ].
Open-ended questions were used and responses tape-recorded. Each interview began with obtaining consent from the participant, explanation of the study followed by a discussion of any concerns. Participants were assured of the confidentiality of their opinions. The tape-recorded interview followed the completion of the aforementioned tasks. Demographic information for each participant was also collected. All the participants of this study had had an ultrasound in their pregnancy.
There were no restrictions to maternal age and gestational week of the pregnancy. Primigravida and multiparous women were all included to obtain feelings and attitudes of both groups. There were, however restrictions to women having any complication s as the pregnancy experience may be extremely different for them. In order to ensure validity, all the researchers participated in data collection to ensure triangulation by having a team research approach.
At the same time triangulation was done by comparing data to already existing literature, and transcripts were always kept and referred to during the research period and the participants were requested to verify the recorded interview on the tape; all to ensure validity.
Thirty women were considered for the study through convenience sampling. This sample size provided enough data saturation whereby the responses had become repetitive and redundant at the 30th woman and no new ideas were coming up. At the same time, the responses got provided enough depth which is key in focused ethnography exploratory qualitative studies like this study rather than dwelling on the breadth of the sample size that provide similar responses even after data saturation [ 19 ].
Thematic content analysis, a valued method for analyzing qualitative data was used [ 20 ]. This involved content analysis to extract the meanings of the informants, and also transcription. Raw data was proof-read against audio-taped interviews and coded into categories of similar meaning. This technique is one Wilson collectively refers to as analytic description [ 21 ]. Categories were established, resulting into content themes, consistent with the value of thematic content analysis in qualitative methods [ 22 ].
These themes summarized the meaning of the data which addressed the purpose of the study. Bivariate, multivariate and logistic regression model were the methods used to analyse the quantitative part of the data using SPSS. A Chi-square was used to test statistical significance and a p-value of 0. Consent was also obtained from each study participant. Confidentiality, autonomy, respects and dignity of all the participants was strictly observed throughout the study. Additionally participants were assured of their rights to decline participating in the study and also not to answer questions they felt uncomfortable with.
The participants were also assured that there will be no harm, prejudice, malice or any form of danger should they wish not to participate in the study. This study strictly adhered to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. Thirty women participated in this study with age range of 19 to 42 years, and an average age of All were pregnant at the time of their interview.
Of the 30 women interviewed, All had partners at the time of the interview. Three key themes were identified: knowledge, attitude and practices. All women reported having some knowledge about obstetric sonography no matter the level of education, parity or type of occupation.
However, knowledge levels varied depending on the level of education. For example the 2 nurses in this study cited the uses of obstetric sonography which included determining fetal presentation and lie, expected date of delivery, location of placenta, checking whether the cord was around the neck and assessing the fetal parts. Pressed further, they could not give any more reasons. The women with primary education cited other reasons like assessing fetal movements and number of fetuses. The source of knowledge again varied according to level of education.
The nurses, primary and secondary school teachers cited sources like radio and T. V programmes, newspapers, health promotion activities and peers, while the market vendors cited talks given by mid-wives when they go antenatal check-ups and their peers only. However, all the 30 women in this study expressed that they know ultrasound may lead to cancer, regardless of their level of education.
When asked about the source of this knowledge, it was a common thread that they had got it from their friends. On further exploration, all the women expressed willingness to learn more about routine obstetric scan and whether it has any effects to their lives and that of their babies.
They also expressed deficit in knowledge about what ultrasound can and cannot do. All the women reported a positive attitude towards obstetric sonography with However, all the women expressed their feelings about the safety of their lives and the lives of their babies due to overexposure to ultrasound.
The fear of getting cancer due to exposure to the scan was a common perception in all the responses. Additionally, all women expressed their dissatisfaction with the person doing the scan due to lack of proper communication with them.
Many of them had questions, but were not either responded to or they were responded to rudely as one lady put it,. All women reported that they duly accepted to go for the scan in their pregnancy. Some even reported requesting for it themselves. One lady, pregnant for the second time, described her need for the scan:.
All the 30 women said that they would actually go for a scan even if their doctor did not request for it just to look at the baby. Five women expressed dissatisfaction however, about the false information got in their previous scans as one of them explicitly put it:. I did all my shopping buying only blue things, only to give birth to a girl. Primigravida women were about four times more likely to request for the sex of the baby than multi-parous women, OR 3.
Women with some formal education were seven times more likely than the uneducated ones to request for the sex of the fetus, OR 6. The impendiment to do routine obstetric scans expressed by all women was the fear for its effects to their lives and their babies; most especially the fear to get cancer from exposure to ultrasound was expressed by all women.
Ultrasound has become a routine part of care for pregnant women in Uganda, being one of a range of techniques used in screening. However, it differs from most others because it allows women to view their babies. Routine obstetric sonography is now globally recognized as one of the ways through which maternal mortality can be reduced. This study aimed at finding out the knowledge, attitudes and practices of pregnant women towards prenatal sonography at Naguru Health Centre, Uganda. Exploratory -descriptive study using interviewer-administered questionnaires.
Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate. knowledge and attitude of pregnant women about ultrasound examination and its risks. 2D and 3D/4D ultrasound in obstetrics. Various maximum 'safe' temperature elevations have been proposed, although the suggested values range.
Metrics details. The World Health Organization Antenatal Guidelines and the South African Maternal and Child Health Guidelines recommend one early antenatal ultrasound scan to establish gestational age and to detect multiple pregnancies and fetal abnormalities. Prior research indicates that ultrasound scan can also increase parental—fetal attachment.
African Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. Pregnant women's beliefs, expectations and experiences of antenatal ultrasound in Northern Tanzania. This qualitative study explored pregnant women's beliefs, expectations and experiences of the recently introduced antenatal ultrasound service in BomaNg'ombe hospital, Tanzania. Thematic analysis of 25 semi-structured interviews and 41 questionnaires was employed.
Background: Ultrasonography is firmly embedded in antenatal maternity care around the world. It proves accuracy in calculation of gestational age, earlier identification of multiple pregnancies, and diagnosis of nonviable pregnancies and certain fetal malformations. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective and cross-sectional study conducted among pregnant women that attended antenatal ultrasound scan at AKTH. A pretested and structured questionnaire was used. Only women that agreed to participate were included in the study. Convenience sampling technique was employed for the data collection.
Chidozie E. Mbada, Olubukayomi E. Adebayo, Adebanjo B. Adeyemi, Olujide O. Arije, Olumide O. Dada, Olabisi A.
PDF | Ultrasound has become a routine part of care for pregnant women in Uganda, being one of a Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate. Women's knowledge, attitude and practices of obstetric sonography were influenced with % (n=20) of them saying that the scan could help them plan.
Nutrition during pregnancy is an important element for the pregnant women and their developing fetus, they must take enough calories and nutrients to provide the essential requirements for both themselves and their fetus and to prevent complications of abnormal weight gain in pregnancy. To determine the effect of the nutritional health education program on changing knowledge, attitude, and practice towards a healthy lifestyle during pregnancy, obtaining optimal weight gain and consequently its effect on maternal and fetal outcomes. An interventional study pre-post test , in Zagazig university antenatal care outpatient clinic was conducted. Health education sessions were applied to the pregnant females and their knowledge, attitude, and practice about healthy nutrition were assessed before and after the intervention. Ultrasound was performed, maternal and fetal outcomes were detected.
Metrics details. Global evidence suggests that many women engage in low levels of physical activity PA and exercise during pregnancy despite its beneficial effects. This is particularly the case in Africa. This article reviews the literature on levels of PA and exercise among pregnant women in Africa, highlighting the level of PA or exercise participation during pregnancy in Africa, including types of PA, factors affecting PA, beliefs about and benefits of prenatal activity, advice or counselling on PA during pregnancy in Africa, and PA interventions proposed to promote the uptake of prenatal PA. A total of 40 references were found. On the basis of an analysis of titles, abstracts and the language of publication other than English , 11 articles were rejected, and 29 articles were fully read, although two had to be rejected due to a lack of access to the full version.
Read terms. The information reflects merging clinical and scientific advances as of the date issued, is subject to change, and should not be construed as dictating an exclusive course of treatment or procedure. Variations in practice may be warranted based on the needs of the individual patient, resources, and limitations unique to the institution or type of practice. Abstract: In , one in three women who gave birth in the United States did so by cesarean delivery. Cesarean birth can be life-saving for the fetus, the mother, or both in certain cases. However, the rapid increase in cesarean birth rates from to without clear evidence of concomitant decreases in maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality raises significant concern that cesarean delivery is overused.
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