File Name: zulu culture and traditions .zip
Cultural practices in the African continent have been thought to impact negatively on body donation. Thus, most African countries continue to rely on unclaimed bodies for dissection programs, or bequests from the white population. The latter situation is dominant in South African medical schools.
The Nguni represent nearly two thirds of South Africa's Black population and can be divided into four distinct groups; the Northern and Central Nguni the Zulu-speaking peoples , the Southern Nguni the Xhosa-speaking peoples , the Swazi people from Swaziland and adjacent areas, and the Ndebele people of the Northern Province and Mpumalanga.
Archaeological evidence shows that the Bantu-speaking groups, that were the ancestors of the Nguni, migrated down from East Africa as early as the eleventh century - see South Africa's general history timeline. The Zulu language, of which there are variations, is part of the Nguni language group. The word Zulu means "Sky" and according to oral history, Zulu was the name of the ancestor who founded the Zulu royal line in about The largest urban concentration of Zulu people is in the Gauteng Province, and in the corridor of Pietermaritzburg and Durban.
The largest rural concentration of Zulu people is in Kwa-Zulu Natal. IsiZulu is South Africa's most widely spoken official language. It is a tonal language understood by people from the Cape to Zimbabwe and is characterized by many "clicks".
In it was determined that approximately 9 million South Africans speak Xhosa as a home language. The following overview of the language was written by B.
They taught the first people with whom they made contact, spreading the word of God, basic writing skills in Zulu. Magema Fuze, Ndiyane and William were among the very first who were taught communicative English and basic writing skills at about Between and , the first translated version of the Bible was produced in very old Zulu orthography. In the first Zulu Grammar Book by L.
Grout was produced". Its oral tradition is very rich but its modern literature is still developing. In he concentrated in editing the newspaper "Ilanga LaseNatali". His first Zulu novel "Insila kaShaka" was published in We see a steady growth of publications especially novels from onwards.
The clear-cut distinction made today between the Xhosa and the Zulu has no basis in culture or history but arises out of the colonial distinction between the Cape and Natal colonies. Both speak very similar languages and share similar customs, but the historical experiences at the northern end of the Nguni culture area differed considerably from the historical experiences at the southern end.
The majority of northerners became part of the Zulu kingdom, which abolished circumcision. The majority of southerners never became part of any strongly centralised kingdom, intermarried with Khoikhoi and retained circumcision.
Many Zulu people converted to Christianity under colonialism. However, although there are many Christian converts, ancestral beliefs have not disappeared. Instead, there has been a mixture of traditional beliefs and Christianity. Ancestral spirits are important in Zulu religious life, and offerings and sacrifices are made to the ancestors for protection, good health, and happiness. Ancestral spirits come back to the world in the form of dreams, illnesses, and sometimes snakes.
The Zulu also believe in the use of magic. Ill fortune such as bad luck and illness is considered to be sent by an angry spirit. When this happens, the help of a traditional healer is sought, and he or she will communicate with the ancestors or use natural herbs and prayers, to get rid of the problem.
Late nineteenth-century postcard of Zulu Warriors note the Europeans in the background. The Zulu are fond of singing as well as dancing. These activities promote unity at all transitional ceremonies such as births, weddings, and funerals.
All the dances are accompanied by drums and the men dress as warriors see image. Zulu folklore is transmitted through storytelling, praise-poems, and proverbs. These explain Zulu history and teach moral lessons. Praise-poems poems recited about the kings and the high achievers in life is becoming part of popular culture.
The Zulu, especially those from rural areas, are known for their weaving, craft-making, pottery, and beadwork. The Zulu term for "family" umndeni includes all the people staying in a homestead who are related to each other, either by blood, marriage, or adoption.
Drinking and eating from the same plate was and still is a sign of friendship. It is customary for children to eat from the same dish, usually a big basin. This derives from a "share what you have" belief which is part of Ubuntu humane philosophy. Long ago, before the Zulu were forged as a nation, they lived as isolated family groups and partly nomadic northern Nguni groups. These groups moved about within their loosely defined territories in search of game and good grazing for their cattle.
As they accumulated livestock, and supporters family leaders divided and dispersed in different directions, while still retaining family networks. The Zulu homestead imizi consisted of an extended family and others attached to the household through social obligations.
This social unit was largely self-sufficient, with responsibilities divided according to gender. Men were generally responsible for defending the homestead, caring for cattle, manufacturing and maintaining weapons and farm implements, and building dwellings.
Women had domestic responsibilities and raised crops, usually grains, on land near the household. By the late eighteenth century, a process of political consolidation among the groups was beginning to take place.
A number of powerful chiefdoms began to emerge and a transformation from a pastoral society to a more organised statehood occurred.
This enabled leaders to wield more authority over their own supporters and to compel allegiance from conquered chiefdoms. Changes took place in the nature of political, social, and economic links between chiefs of these emerging power blocs and their subjects. Zulu chiefs demanded steadily increasing tribute or taxes from their subjects, acquired great wealth, commanded large armies, and, in many cases, subjugated neighbouring chiefdoms.
Military conquest allowed men to achieve status distinctions that had become increasingly important. This culminated early in the nineteenth century with the warrior-king Shaka conquering all the groups in Zululand and uniting them into a single powerful Zulu nation, that made its influence felt over southern and central Africa.
Shaka ruled from to , when he was assassinated by his brothers. Shaka recruited young men from all over the kingdom and trained them in his own novel warrior tactics. His military campaign resulted in widespread violence and displacement, and after defeating competing armies and assimilating their people, Shaka established his Zulu nation.
Within twelve years, he had forged one of the mightiest empires the African continent has ever known. The Zulu empire weakened after Shaka's death in One of the most significant events in Zulu history was the arrival of Europeans in Natal. By the late s, British troops had invaded Zulu territory and divided Zulu land into different chiefdoms.
The Zulu never regained their independence see Anglo-Zulu Wars. Natal received "Colonial government" in , and the Zulu people were dissatisfied about being governed by the Colony. A plague of locusts devastated crops in Zululand and Natal in and , and their cattle were dying of rinderpest, lung sickness and east coast fever.
These natural disasters impoverished them and forced more men to seek employment as railway construction workers in northern Natal and on the mines in the Witwatersrand.
The last Zulu uprising, led by Chief Bambatha in , was a response to harsh and unjust laws and unimaginable actions by the Natal Government. The uprising was ruthlessly suppressed see Bambatha Rebellion. The s saw fundamental changes in the Zulu nation. Many were drawn towards the mines and fast-growing cities as wage earners and were separated from the land and urbanised. Zulu men and women have made up a substantial portion of South Africa's urban workforce throughout the 20th century, especially in the gold and copper mines of the Witwatersrand.
Zulu workers organized some of the first black labour unions in the country. The Zululand Planters' Union organized agricultural workers in Natal in the early twentieth century. The dawn of apartheid in the s marked more changes for all Black South Africans, and in the South African Government introduced the "homelands".
In the s the Government's objective was to form a "tribal authority" and provide for the gradual development of self-governing Bantu national units. The first Territorial Authority for the Zulu people was established in and the Zulu homeland of KwaZulu was defined.
The town of Nongoma was temporarily consolidated as the capital, pending completion of buildings at Ulundi. Led by Chief Minister Mangosutho Buthelezi, Inkatha worked within the NP governments system, but it opposed homeland independence, standing for a non-racial democracy, federalism, and free enterprise. Military prowess continued to be an important value in Zulu culture, and this emphasis fuelled some of the political violence of the s.
Buthelezi's nephew, Goodwill Zwelithini , was the Zulu monarch in the s. Buthelezi and King Goodwill won the agreement of ANC negotiators just before the April elections that, with international mediation, the government would establish a special status for the Zulu Kingdom after the elections. Zulu leaders understood this special status to mean some degree of regional autonomy within the province of KwaZulu-Natal. Buthelezi was appointed minister of home affairs in the first Government of National Unity in He led a walkout of Zulu delegates from the National Assembly in early and clashed repeatedly with newly elected President Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela.
Buthelezi threatened to abandon the Government of National Unity entirely unless his Zulu constituency received greater recognition and autonomy from central government control. Language, culture and beliefs: The Zulu language, of which there are variations, is part of the Nguni language group. Late nineteenth-century postcard of Zulu Warriors note the Europeans in the background The Zulu are fond of singing as well as dancing.
Origins: Long ago, before the Zulu were forged as a nation, they lived as isolated family groups and partly nomadic northern Nguni groups. People and Culture of South Africa. Know something about this topic? Towards a people's history.
After the death of his father, Senzangakhona, Shaka accepted leadership of the Zulu clan who at the time only consisted of 1 people. Under his reign from until , an army impi of 50 emerged and defeated other clans. Shaka created many military tactics to defeat the enemy. He created the 'Assegai' short, large bladed stabbing spear and the lethal means to utilize the weapon. Shaka also discarded his cowhide sandals, as it hindered his movements.
Eager to find out more about the Zulu language, culture and people? Read on…. Zulu culture is fascinating, with a long history — and these ten facts will help you see just why! This shows how language develops over time to take on new significance when translated by other peoples. The oral history of the Zulus lists eight kings, including the current king, known as Zwelithini Goodwill. The Zulu people became a powerful state in , led by a military leader known as Shaka, who was noted for his significant military prowess and ability to both integrate and mobilize the smaller tribes of the Zulu people.
Africa continent has been said to lag behind in agricultural growth and development which has led to organizational and structural failures. Many factors have been investigated to this effect such as poor infrastructure, inadequate factors of production, poor energy, lack of modern agricultural facilities, etc. Cultural practices and the acceptability of advanced skills and knowledge have been less investigated as militating factors against agricultural growth and development. This chapter evaluates the Isi-Zulu cultural agricultural views and management practices of livestock on its productivity. Small scaled farmers within the communities were engaged through a survey and focused group discussion.
In Zulu culture, for both the traditionalist and Christian Zulu, the importance of the ancestors, in addition to other African cultural traditions (Moila,. ). Western honeycreekpres.orghoneycreekpres.org
For many people, the Zulu are the best-known African people. Their military exploits led to the rise of a great kingdom that was feared for a long time over much of the African continent. The Zulu are the descendants of Nguni-speaking people.
My group and I have been invited to spend the night, modern Zulu-style, at their home in the KwaZulu-Natal province. From my seat on the couch, I can see out the living room window to the green terraces dotted with Zulu houses. They all seem to cling precariously to the earth, as if one rumble would send them sliding.
Чатрукьян вдруг обрел прежнюю уверенность. - Цепная мутация, сэр. Я проделал анализ и получил именно такой результат - цепную мутацию. Теперь Сьюзан поняла, почему сотрудник систем безопасности так взволнован. Цепная мутация. Она знала, что цепная мутация представляет собой последовательность программирования, которая сложнейшим образом искажает данные. Это обычное явление для компьютерных вирусов, особенно таких, которые поражают крупные блоки информации.
И положил трубку. Дэвид, задержавшись в будке, тяжко вздохнул.
Я все это видел, потому что прятался в подсобке. Чатрукьян хотел вызвать службу безопасности, что разрушило бы все планы Стратмора. Ну и ловок, подумала Сьюзан. На все у него готов ответ.
Джабба взял в руки распечатку. Фонтейн молча стоял. Сьюзан заглянула в распечатку через плечо Джаббы. - Выходит, нас атакует всего лишь первый набросок червя Танкадо. - Набросок или отшлифованный до блеска экземпляр, - проворчал Джабба, - но он дал нам под зад коленом.
Сьюзан шла вперед, повторяя это имя, ее глаза неотрывно смотрели на экран. - Дэвид! - воскликнула она, еле держась на ногах.
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