File Name: criminal justice in action 9th edition .zip
Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have committed crimes. The criminal justice system is a series of government agencies and institutions.
Goals include the rehabilitation of offenders, preventing other crimes, and moral support for victims. The primary institutions of the criminal justice system are the police , prosecution and defense lawyers, the courts and prisons. Online Etymology Dictionary.
The purpose of law is to provide an objective set of rules for governing conduct and maintaining order in a society. The oldest known codified law is the Code of Hammurabi , dating back to about BC.
The preface directly credits the laws to the Code of Hammurabi of Ur. In different parts of the world, law could be established by philosophers or religion. In the modern world, laws are typically created and enforced by governments. These codified laws may coexist with or contradict other forms of social control, such as religious proscriptions, professional rules and ethics, or the cultural mores and customs of a society.
Within the realm of codified law, there are generally two forms of law that the courts are concerned with. Civil laws are rules and regulations which govern transactions and grievances between individual citizens. Criminal law is concerned with actions which are dangerous or harmful to society as a whole, in which prosecution is pursued not by an individual but rather by the state. The purpose of criminal law is to provide the specific definition of what constitutes a crime and to prescribe punishments for committing such a crime.
No criminal law can be valid unless it includes both of these factors. The subject of criminal justice is, of course, primarily concerned with the enforcement of criminal law.
In the criminal justice system, these distinct agencies operate together as the principal means of maintaining the rule of law within society. The first contact a defendant has with the criminal justice system is usually with the police or law enforcement who investigates the suspected wrongdoing and makes an arrest , but if the suspect is dangerous to the whole nation, a national level law enforcement agency is called in.
When warranted, law enforcement agencies or police officers are empowered to use force and other forms of legal coercion and means to effect public and social order. The term is most commonly associated with police departments of a state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. Police are primarily concerned with keeping the peace and enforcing criminal law based on their particular mission and jurisdiction.
Formed in , the Federal Bureau of Investigation began as an entity which could investigate and enforce specific federal laws as an investigative and " law enforcement agency " in the United States;  this, however, has constituted only a small portion of overall policing activity. The courts serve as the venue where disputes are then settled and justice is administered.
With regard to criminal justice, there are a number of critical people in any court setting. These critical people are referred to as the courtroom work group and include both professional and non professional individuals. These include the judge , prosecutor , and the defense attorney. The judge, or magistrate, is a person, elected or appointed, who is knowledgeable in the law, and whose function is to objectively administer the legal proceedings and offer a final decision to dispose of a case.
In the U. In this system, two parties will both offer their version of events and argue their case before the court sometimes before a judge or panel of judges, sometimes before a jury.
The case should be decided in favor of the party who offers the most sound and compelling arguments based on the law as applied to the facts of the case. The prosecutor, or district attorney, is a lawyer who brings charges against a person, persons or corporate entity. It is the prosecutor's duty to explain to the court what crime was committed and to detail what evidence has been found which incriminates the accused.
The prosecutor should not be confused with a plaintiff or plaintiff's counsel. Although both serve the function of bringing a complaint before the court, the prosecutor is a servant of the state who makes accusations on behalf of the state in criminal proceedings, while the plaintiff is the complaining party in civil proceedings. A defense attorney counsels the accused on the legal process, likely outcomes for the accused and suggests strategies.
The accused, not the lawyer, has the right to make final decisions regarding a number of fundamental points, including whether to testify, and to accept a plea offer or demand a jury trial in appropriate cases. It is the defense attorney's duty to represent the interests of the client, raise procedural and evidentiary issues, and hold the prosecution to its burden of proving guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.
Defense counsel may challenge evidence presented by the prosecution or present exculpatory evidence and argue on behalf of their client. At trial, the defense attorney may attempt to offer a rebuttal to the prosecutor's accusations. Those who cannot afford a private attorney may be provided one by the state. Historically, however, the right to a defense attorney has not always been universal. For example, in Tudor England criminals accused of treason were not permitted to offer arguments in their defense.
In many jurisdictions, there is no right to an appointed attorney, if the accused is not in jeopardy of losing his or her liberty. The final determination of guilt or innocence is typically made by a third party, who is supposed to be disinterested. This function may be performed by a judge, a panel of judges, or a jury panel composed of unbiased citizens. This process varies depending on the laws of the specific jurisdiction. In some places the panel be it judges or a jury is required to issue a unanimous decision, while in others only a majority vote is required.
In America, this process depends on the state, level of court, and even agreements between the prosecuting and defending parties. Some nations do not use juries at all, or rely on theological or military authorities to issue verdicts. Some cases can be disposed of without the need for a trial. In fact, the vast majority are. If the accused confesses his or her guilt, a shorter process may be employed and a judgment may be rendered more quickly. Some nations, such as America, allow plea bargaining in which the accused pleads guilty, nolo contendere or not guilty, and may accept a diversion program or reduced punishment, where the prosecution's case is weak or in exchange for the cooperation of the accused against other people.
This reduced sentence is sometimes a reward for sparing the state the expense of a formal trial. Many nations do not permit the use of plea bargaining, believing that it coerces innocent people to plead guilty in an attempt to avoid a harsh punishment. The courts nowadays are seeking alternative measures as opposed to throwing someone into prison right away.
The entire trial process, whatever the country, is fraught with problems and subject to criticism. Bias and discrimination form an ever-present threat to an objective decision. Any prejudice on the part of the lawyers, the judge, or jury members threatens to destroy the court's credibility. Some people argue that the often Byzantine rules governing courtroom conduct and processes restrict a layman's ability to participate, essentially reducing the legal process to a battle between the lawyers.
In this case, the criticism is that the decision is based less on sound justice and more on the lawyer's eloquence and charisma. This is a particular problem when the lawyer performs in a substandard manner. The jury process is another area of frequent criticism, as there are few mechanisms to guard against poor judgment or incompetence on the part of the layman jurors. Judges themselves are very subject to bias subject to things as ordinary as the length of time since their last break.
Manipulations of the court system by defense and prosecution attorneys, law enforcement as well as the defendants have occurred and there have been cases where justice was denied. Offenders are then turned over to the correctional authorities, from the court system after the accused has been found guilty. Like all other aspects of criminal justice, the administration of punishment has taken many different forms throughout history.
Early on, when civilizations lacked the resources necessary to construct and maintain prisons, exile and execution were the primary forms of punishment. Historically shame punishments and exile have also been used as forms of censure. The most publicly visible form of punishment in the modern era is the prison. Prisons may serve as detention centers for prisoners after trial.
For containment of the accused, jails are used. Early prisons were used primarily to sequester criminals and little thought was given to living conditions within their walls. In America, the Quaker movement is commonly credited with establishing the idea that prisons should be used to reform criminals. This can also be seen as a critical moment in the debate regarding the purpose of punishment. Punishment in the form of prison time may serve a variety of purposes. First, and most obviously, the incarceration of criminals removes them from the general population and inhibits their ability to perpetrate further crimes.
A new goal of prison punishments is to offer criminals a chance to be rehabilitated. Many modern prisons offer schooling or job training to prisoners as a chance to learn a vocation and thereby earn a legitimate living when they are returned to society. Religious institutions also have a presence in many prisons, with the goal of teaching ethics and instilling a sense of morality in the prisoners. If a prisoner is released before his time is served, he is released as a parole.
This means that they are released, but the restrictions are greater than that of someone on probation. There are numerous other forms of punishment which are commonly used in conjunction with or in place of prison terms. Monetary fines are one of the oldest forms of punishment still used today. These fines may be paid to the state or to the victims as a form of reparation. Probation and house arrest are also sanctions which seek to limit a person's mobility and his or her opportunities to commit crimes without actually placing them in a prison setting.
Furthermore, many jurisdictions may require some form of public or community service as a form of reparations for lesser offenses. In Corrections, the Department ensures court-ordered, pre-sentence chemical dependency assessments, related Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative specific examinations and treatment will occur for offenders sentenced to Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative in compliance with RCW 9.
Execution or capital punishment is still used around the world. Its use is one of the most heavily debated aspects of the criminal justice system. Some societies are willing to use executions as a form of political control, or for relatively minor misdeeds.
Other societies reserve execution for only the most sinister and brutal offenses. The functional study of criminal justice is distinct from criminology , which involves the study of crime as a social phenomenon, causes of crime, criminal behavior, and other aspects of crime.
It emerged as an academic discipline in the s, beginning with Berkeley police chief August Vollmer who established a criminal justice program at the University of California, Berkeley in Wilson , who led efforts to professionalize policing and reduce corruption.
Throughout the s and s, crime rates soared and social issues took center stage in the public eye. A number of new laws and studies focused federal resources on researching new approaches to crime control.
The Warren Court the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren , issued a series of rulings which redefined citizen's rights and substantially altered the powers and responsibilities of police and the courts.
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It can serve as a text for an entire law-related education course, or as a supplement for civics, government, or contemporary-issues courses. In addition, our website offers links to supplementary readings, the latest statistics, almost every case mentioned in the text, and much more. Criminal Justice in America, 5th Ed. Landmarks: Historic U.
Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have committed crimes. The criminal justice system is a series of government agencies and institutions. Goals include the rehabilitation of offenders, preventing other crimes, and moral support for victims.
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Ответа не последовало.
Конечно. Он работает уже шестнадцать часов, если не ошибаюсь. Чатрукьян не знал, что сказать. - Да, сэр. Шестнадцать часов.
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Я вовсе не имела в виду твою жену. - Она невинно захлопала ресницами. - Я имела в виду Кармен.
Ищите. Джабба окончательно убедился: директор рискнул и проиграл.
Она кивнула, и из ее глаз потекли слезы. - Договорились. - Агент Смит! - позвал Фонтейн. Из-за спины Беккера появилось лицо Смита. - Слушаю, сэр.
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Не было видно даже кнопочных электронных панелей на дверях кабинетов. Когда ее глаза привыкли к темноте, Сьюзан разглядела, что единственным источником слабого света в шифровалке был открытый люк, из которого исходило заметное красноватое сияние ламп, находившихся в подсобном помещении далеко внизу. Она начала двигаться в направлении люка. В воздухе ощущался едва уловимый запах озона.
У м-меня его. Беккер покровительственно улыбнулся и перевел взгляд на дверь в ванную.
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